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e.g. Man can think.

The fire is burning.


break, breathe, burn, smoke, , skate, appear, disappear, work, think etc.


e.g. He became a scientist.

She is getting more and more beautiful.

常用系动词: be, get, turn, feel, seem, appear, look, taste, sound, smell, become, go, prove etc.


e.g. We love peace.

They will paint the door.

常用动词有:see, watch, need, love, like, study, answer, carry, etc.


e.g. We elected him president.

They painted the door white.

I advised the students to recite the texts.



The couple named their baby Johnson.


I keep the door open.


The boy knocked the bottle over.


He ordered his men to fire.


He heard me singing.

I saw the vase broken.


They look on him as a teacher.


I asked him what he was doing.


My friend bought me a gift.

I passed him the book.


My friend bought a gift for me.

I passed the book to him.


常与介词 for 搭配的动词有:

buy, make, do, get, play, call, choose, cook, fetch, find, keep, order, save, etc. 常与介词 to 搭配的动词有:

bring, give, , hand, pass, lend, offer, pay, promise, sell, send, show, each, tell, throw, write, etc.






(1). 主语+谓语(不及物动词) [S + V]

如:The children are playing happily.


(2). 主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语 [S+V+O]

如:The Greens enjoy living in China.


(3). 主语+谓语+表语 [S+V+P]

该句型谓语动词为连系动词。常见的系动词有:be(是); get(变得), become(成为), turn(变得), look(看起来), feel(感到), smell(闻起来), taste(尝起来), sound(听起来), seem(似乎) 等。如:

① He became a famous doctor.


② The apple pie tastes really delicious.


(4). 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 [S+V+InO+DO]


① My aunt bought me a computer. = My aunt bought a computer for me. 我阿姨买给我一台电脑。

② I passed him the salt. = I passed the salt to him.


(5). 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 [S+V+O+OC]

如:We must keep our school clean.



(1).主 系 表

在 主 系 表 结构中,只能作表语的形容词,常见的有:alone,asleep,afraid,alive,ill等。很多形容词既可以做定语,也可以做表语。

(2)主 谓 宾

1)只能用不定式作宾语的常见动词:want,hope,wish,would like,decide,agree,ask,cant wait等;

2)只能用动名词作宾语的常见动词:mind,enjoy,keep,finish,cant help等;


a.remember to do.。。记住要做......(还未做)

remember doing.。。记得做了......(已做过)

b.forget to do.。。忘了做......(还未做)

forget doing.。。忘了做过......(已做过)

c.stopto do.。。停下来去做......

stop doing.。。停止做......

d.go on to do.。。接下来去做......

go on doing.。。继续做......

e.try to do.。。尽力做......

try doing.。。试着做......(看有无结果)


(3).主 谓 直宾 间宾

1)这种结构也可将间宾放到直宾之后,但间宾前需加介词to(对象)或for(目的); 例如:They lent the bike to the boy.



4)变被动结构时,直宾或间宾都可以做主语,例如:I bought my brother a nice pen. A nice pen was bought for my brother. My brother was bought a pen .

(4).主 谓 宾 宾补


例如:She asked me to call him again.

很多动词后面都可以有这种宾补。初中教材常见的这类动词有:ask,tell,want,wish,would like,like,hate等。



例如:We often hear the girl sing the song.

能带这种复合宾语的动词为感官动词、短语动词和使役动词如let,feel,notice,help,make,have,listen to,hear,see,watch,look at,observe.




例如:He heard somebody knocking on the window.

I had my bike mended yesterday. 我昨天让人给我修理了自行车。



a.He saw a girl getting on the bus.(意为上车的动作正在进行。)

b.He saw a girl get on the bus.(意为女孩上车的动作已经结束了。)


例如:We must keep it a secret.



例如:You should keep the room clean.





①They found it strange that no one would take the money.

②You will feel it a great pleasure talking to her.




1. Anna speaks Russian. 2. Daddy bought Tom a new dictionary.

3. Kate calls her cat Mimi. 4. Polly laughed.

5. Lily felt cold.

6. The picture looks beautiful. 7. Jim brought me my English books.

8. It is dangerous. 9. You must wait.

10. Mr Green cant keep the house tidy.

2)选择正确答案 11.Look ! There _____ some apples in that tree.

A is B was C are D were

12. The ground must be just right ___ too wet ___ too dry.

A. either; or B. both; and C. between; and D. neither; nor

13. He ____ coffee at all. He ___ tea.

A. doesnt like, prefers B. likes, doesnt prefer

C. would like, not prefers D. prefers, is not food of

14. We ___ happy about the price of meat.

A. dont B. are not C. wont D. werent being

15. I ___ trouble finding the place.

A. didnt have many B. havent a great deal of

C. didnt have much D. hadnt a lot of

16. ___ of us likes the film.

A. Both B. All C. Neither D. Some

17. They___lunch at home every day.

A. have not B. didnt have C. dont have D. have not any

18. They are ___ young ___ carry the box onto the table.

A. enough; too B. too; toC. so; to D. very; to

19. The two girls are only two years old. This girl is ___ than that one.

A. not taller B. as tall C. so tall D. more taller

20. Some apples are ___ than these oranges.

A. not bigger B. big C. small D. much big


1.. I dont know how I can talk to my new friend.(同义句转换)

I dont know ___ ___ ___ ___ my new friend.

此题主要考察简单句同复合句之间的转化,尤其是宾语从句中由how what where等引导的,多考虑把宾语从句改写成疑问词加不定式的形式。所以此题答案位how to talk to

2. He told me how I could send an e-mail.(改为同意句) 此题同上

3. My sweater is like my sisters(同义句)

My sweater and my sisters ___ ___ ___.

此题答案为are the same, my sweater and my sisters 虽为两个物品,但他们由and连接作为主语是一个。

4.__ do you mind ______ this place?

__ Better not. Its for Mr. Smith. A. take B. to take C. took D. my taking

答案D mind 只能以动名词为宾语。 5.I hear the girl sing the song every day.变被动语态 The girl _____ _______ _____ sing the song every day.

答案为 is heard to 句子里hear 是感官动词,主动句里不带to 但是变被动时要带to. 6.考点预测:




The cars _____ _____ are all made in China.


Its half an ______ ______ to get to the shopping center.


This idea _______ ________ a good one . I will think about it.


It is _______ for us _______ study hard.


What would you like to have ______ ________ eggs, bread or noodles?



1. On Sunday I often stay at home and do some ________.

A. read B. reads C. reading D. to read

2. My mother often asks me ______ early.

A. get up B. got up C. getting up D. to get up

3. The teacher told her students _________ in public.

A. not to shout B. didnt shout C. not shout D. to not shout

4. The teacher told the boy ________ late again .

A. to not be B. not be C. not to be D. to be

5. He talked _____ fast for us ____ catch up with.

A. so ,that B. such ,that C. enough , to D. too, to

6. The man downstairs found ______ very difficult to get to sleep.

A. them B. that C. what D. it

7. Chinese _____ by many people in the world.

A. speaks B. is spoken C. is speaking D. spoke

8. __ Whats your mother?

__ _________.

A.She is a worker B.She is nice C she is cooking supper D she works in a shop

9. May I use your bike? ________. Its broken.

A. Yes, please. B. Im afraid not. C. sure D. No, thanks.

10. ___ _____is your mother today? ___ She is much better.

A. How B. What C. Where D. How old 二 翻译句子 1 多读书对我们有好处

2 在强烈的光线下看书不好

3 你给我这么多帮助,你真好

4 李平昨晚花了半小时做作业

5 你能把自行车借给我吗??

6 你给他量过体温了吗?是的,我量过了,他的体温好像没问题。

7 我们怎样才能与同学和睦相处?

8 格林先生来这所学校多久了?三年半了

9 你们家里有多少人?

10 当别人犯错误时,不要嘲笑他们。


陈述句,疑问句,祈使句,感叹句 主动句 被动句 副词的位置

英语句子纷繁复杂,多种多样,但是按照其结构组成的不同,可以划分为三种类型 简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子叫做简单句。 并列句



S十V 主谓

S十V十P 主系表 S十V十O 主谓宾 S十V十O1十O2 主谓双宾 S十V十O十C 主谓宾宾补


简单句的五种基本句型 1. 主语+谓语 S+V

此句型的特点是:谓语动词是不及物动词,本身能表达完整的意思,后面不需跟宾语,但有时可跟副词、介词短语等作状语,这类动词叫做不及物动词。如: He laughed. John has read widely. He lives in London. His words work.

Birds fly.鸟会飞。

It happened in June 1932.这件事发生于一九三;年六月。 My watch stopped.我的表停了。

She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的会上发了言。

2. 主语+及物动词+宾语 S+V+O

此句型的特点是:谓语动词是及物动词, 是实意动词,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,及动作的承受者,才能使意思表达完整,这类动词叫做及物动词。如: Our team beat all the others. We like the movie. She often helps her mother. He wants a cup of coffee. 3.主语+系动词+表语 S+V+P

此句型的特点是:谓语动词是连系动词,不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语特征、身份、状态的表语。常见的系动词有:be(是),become(成为),get(变得),turn(变得),grow(变得),look(看起来),feel(感到),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),sound(听起来),seem(似乎),keep(保持),stay(保持)等。如: The rose smells sweet. This is an English dictionary. Everything looks different. The weather becomes cooler.

4. 主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) S+V+INO+DO

此句型的特点是:谓语动词必须跟着宾语,而且是必须跟着两个宾语才能表达完整的意义,这两个宾语都是动作的对象或承受者,其中一个宾语指人,一个宾语指物,指人的是间接宾语,指物的是直接宾语。当间接宾语放在直接宾语之后时,通常需要加介词for或to。可跟双宾语的动词有:answer, bring, buy,

find,get,give,lend,make,pass,pay,send,show,sing,take,teach,tell,write等。如: Mr. Li told us an interesting story. Mr. Li told an interesting story to us. Would you please give Li Hua the dictionary? Would you please give this dictionary to Li Hua? She bought her mother a scarf. She bought a scarf for her mother.

Mary passed her brother the salt. Mary passed the salt to her brother. She sang us a folk song. She sang a folk song for us. She cooked us a delicious meal. She cooked a delicious meal for us.

5. 主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) S+V+O+OC


We must keep our school clean. They made him their monitor. I saw them getting on the bus. She asked me to come back soon.


【注】S=Subject(主语); V=Verb(谓语动词); P=Predicative(表语); O=Object(宾语); INO=Indirect Object(间接宾语); DO=Direct Object(直接宾语); OC=Object Complement(宾语补足语)

注:其他各种句子都可由这五种基本句型扩展、变化或省略而构成。 这是非常重要的,不需要理解,背下来吧



This is me and these are my friends. They must stay in water, or they will die. It’s not cheap, but it is very good.

He knocked at the door; there was no answer. You’re alive! And she’s dead.

He said that he didn’t like her.



一、 主系表 复杂难句

Vitamins are organic compounds.

Vitamins are organic compounds necessary for the normal growth of life.

Vitamins are organic compounds necessary for the normal growth of life of animals, including man.

Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth of life of animals, including man.


二、 主谓

This trend began during the Second World War.

This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to this conclusion.

This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to this conclusion that the specific demands cannot generally foreseen in detail.

This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to this conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally foreseen in detail.


三、 主谓宾

The emphasis helped to obscure the great importance.

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen helped to obscure the great importance.

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance.

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences of international trade.


The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences of international trade that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth century.



四、 主谓双宾

Her work won her the Nobel Prize in 1983.

Her work in genetics won United States scientist Barbara McClintock the Nobel Prize in 1983. 美国科学家Barbara McClintock的关于遗传学的作品获得了1983年的诺贝尔奖

五、 主谓宾宾补

Willa Cather considered this novel her best work.

Willa Cather considered her novel of life in nineteenth – century Nebraska, My Antonia her best work. Willa Cather认为《Nebraska, My Antonia》是她在19世纪小说生涯中最好的作品。

六、 从简单词到复合句


宾语宾语从句 句词性从句


三大类基本从句 定语 定语从句

状语 状语从句



• 句子成分和简单句五个基本句型

一、 句子成分




但在there be结构、疑问句(当主语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。

1.During the 1990s, American (名词)



in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式)



has not been decided.(主语从句)

is necessary .(it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式)







You the book for two weeks.


We .


表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow,

Our teacher of English is an .(名词)

Is it (代词)

The weather has turned (形容词)

The speech is (分词)

Three times seven is (数词)

His job is .(不定式)

His hobby is .(动名词)

The machineout of order.(介词短语)

Time is .(副词)

The truth is (表语从句)



They went to see an (名词)

The heavy rain prevented (代词)

How many dictionaries do you have? I have (数词)

They helped with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词)

He pretended (不定式短语)

I enjoy .(动名词短语)

I think(



Lend (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如:

They elected .


英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语,才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make等+宾语+宾补)。 His father named him (名词)

They painted their boat (形容词)

Let the fresh air (副词)

You mustn’t force him

We saw her (现在分词)

We found everything in the lab(介词短语)

We will soon make our city 六)定语


Hangzhou is a (形容词)

China is a country; America is a country.(分词)

There are thirtyin our school.(名词) in English made us surprised.(代词)

Our monitor is always the first(不定式短语)

The for next term has been worked out.(动名词)

He is reading an article (介词短语)


修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。 Light travels .(副词及副词性词组)

He has lived in the city .(介词短语)

He is proud .(不定式短语) He is in the room(分词短语)

Wait (名词) (状语从句)


1. How about meeting again ?(时间状语)

2. Last night she didn’t go to the dance party .(原因状语)

3. I shall go there (条件状语)

4. Mr Smith lives (地点状语)

5. She put the eggs into the basket .(方式状语)

6. She came in (伴随状语) , I must work harder.(目的状语)

8. He was so tired .(结果状语)

9. She works very hard .(让步状语)

10.I am taller .(比较状语)



Mr. Smith, our new teacher, is very kind to us.

Yesterday I talked to my English teacher, Mr. James.

He himself told me that his brother is a doctor.





He is six years old.

She didn’t hear of you before.


Do they like skating?

How old is he?

Is he six or seven years old?

Mary can swim, can’t she?


Be careful, boys; Don’t talk in class


How clever the boy is! 按句子的结构可分三种:


He often reads English in the morning.

Tom and Mike are American boys.

She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall


2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。

You help him and he helps you.

The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 。


The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.


1、表示连接两个同等概念,常用and, not only…but also…,

neither…nor…, then等连接。

The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John.

2、表示选择,常用的连词有or, either…or…, otherwise等。

Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.

3、表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting.

4、表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, therefore等。

August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.



We work.


He is a student.


Writing makes an exact man.


My father bought me a car.


That news made her happy.


基本句型一:主谓 S+Vi


1.The sun is rising.

2.Ill try.

3.The engine broke down.

4.Did you sleep well?


基本句型二:主系表 S+V+P


1.Mr.Brown is名词做表语)

2.Gradualy he became形容词…)

3.She remained现在分词…)

4.The question remained过去分词…)

5.The machine is 介词短语…)

6.The television was副词…)

7.His plan is 动词不定式…)

8.My job is动名词…)

9.The question is 表语从句)

常见系动词:be, become, get, remain, turn, seem, stay, grow,look ,sound, feel, smell, taste, go, appear, run„

基本句型三:主谓宾 S+V+O

(动词为及物动词vt,划线部分为宾语。) ?(名词或代词做宾语) 反身代词做宾语) 同源宾语) 不定式做宾语) ?(动名词做宾语) 宾语从句)

基本句型四:主谓宾宾 S+V+O+O


1. 间接宾语可以改为to引导的短语。 2. 间接宾语可以改为for引导的短语。 3. 直接宾语可以由宾语从句充当。

Tell him Im out.

Can you inform me where Miss Green lives?

基本句型五:主谓宾宾补 S+V+O+OC

(宾语和宾补一起被称做复合宾语。) boring.(形容词做宾补) Mary.(名词…) in a very difficult position.(介词短语…) to be an honest man. (to be…) chatting with Nancy.(现在分词…) carried upstairs.(过去分词…)

his duty


2.I think it best that you should stay with us.

分析:it是形式宾语,best是宾语补足语,that you should stay with us是真正的宾语

Eg 1: “在汤姆获释之前,他给妻子写了一封信,问她是否愿意让他去。”

第一步: 把句子缩小到只剩主要成分.


He wrote a letter.

第二步: 增加修饰成分,扩大句子。 “汤姆给妻子写了一封信”。He wrote a letter to his wife.

第三步: 再扩大句子。


he wrote a letter to his wife.

第四步: 再扩大句子,直至完整.


Just before he was released from jail,Eg2 :


1. 老人失望。


3. 老人读完信后失望之极,竟用手指把它撕得粉碎。

4. 老人读完信后失望之极,竟用颤抖的手指把它撕得粉碎。

5. The old man was disappointed.

6. .

7. After reading the letter the old man was disappointed

8. After reading the letter the old man was so disappointed that he tore the letter into .

补充结构:There be 句型

there + be + 主语 + 状语

be, live, lie, stand, remain, exist, come, go, …

be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变化。如:

现在有 there is/are …

过去有 there was/were…

将来有 there will be…;there is /are going to be...

现在已经有 there has/ have been…

可能有 there might be...

肯定有 there must be …/there must have been...

过去曾经有 there used to be …

似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be …

碰巧有 there happen/ happens/ happened to be …





4.战前这儿一直有家电影院的. Frenchmen.

3.The weatherman says a strong wind in the afternoon.



1) Tomorrow is anther day.

2) After hearing the funny story, my sister laughed.

3) I have a lot of online friends.

4) My parents will buy me a new computer on my birthday.

5) Everything will be better in the future.

6) I’m getting along well with my classmates.

7) I saw my neighbour walking the dog last Sunday.

8) They got very tired after outdoor games.

9) We returned the next afternoon.

10) That was a fantastic weekend for me.

判断以下划线部分分别属于哪些句子成分? birthday. 6) I’m getting along well with











1.Mr.Brown is an engineer.(名词做表语)

2.Gradualy he became silent.(形容词做表语)

3.She remained standing for a hour.(现在分词做表语)

4.The question remained unsolved.(过去分词做表语)

5.The machine is out of order.(介词短语做表语)

6.The television was on.(副词做表语)

7.His plan is to keep the affair secret.(动词不定式做表语)

8.My job is repairing cars.(动名词做表语)

9.The question is what you want to do.(从句做表语,即:表语从句)


Im happy to meet you.

They are willing to help.

We are determined to follow his example.



1.The sun is rising.

2.Ill try.

3.Did you sleep well?(well做状语,修饰不及物动词sleep)

4.The engine broke down.


1.The book sells wel.

2.The window wont shut.

3.The pen writes smoothly.

4.Cheese cuts easily.



1.Do you know these people(them)?(名词或代词做宾语)

2.I cant express myself in English.(反身代词做宾语)

3.He smiled a strange smile.(同源宾语)

4.We cant afford to pay such a price.(不定式做宾语)

5.Would you mind waiting a few minutes?(动名词做宾语)

6.I hope that I have said nothing to pain you.(从句做宾语,即:宾语从句)





1.He handed me a letter.

He handed a letter to me.

2.She gave me her telephone number.

She gave her telephone number to me.


3.She sang us a folk song.

She sang a folk for us.

4.She cooked us a delicious meal.

She cooked a delicious meal for us.


5.Tell him Im out.

6.Can you inform me where Miss Green lives?



1.He found his new job boring.(形容词做宾补)

2.The called their daughter Mary.(名词做宾补)

3.This placed her in a very difficult position.(介词短语做宾补)

4.We went to here house but found her out.(副词做宾补)

5.What do you advise me to do?(不定式做宾补)

6.We thought him to be an honest man.(tobe做宾补)

7.He believed them to have discussed the problem.(不定式的完成式做宾补)

8.He believed her to be telling the truth.(不定式的进行式做宾补)

9.Did you notice him come in?(不带to的不定式做宾补)

10.I saw her chatting with Nancy.(现在分词做宾补)

11.He watched the piano carried upstairs.(过去分词做宾补)


1.He felt it his duty to mention this to her.

分析:it是形式宾语,hisduty是宾语补足语,to mention this to her是真正的宾语。

2.I think it best that you should stay with us.

分析:it是形式宾语,best是宾语补足语,that you should stay with us是真正的宾语。





We are short of money.(be short of中short做表语)

She is always making trouble for her friends.(trouble做make的宾语)

He has carried out our instructions to the letter.(our instructions做词组carry out的宾语)

We are waiting for the rain to stop.(wait for后面的the rain是宾语,to stop是宾语补足语)



①Did you ask the price?(直接接名词做宾语)

②She asked them their names.(接双宾语)

③I asked James to buy some bread.(接宾语加不定式做宾语补足语)

④I asked to speak to Fred.(接不定式做宾语)

⑤Didnt you ask him in?(在此句中和副词in连用)

⑥He has asked for an interview with the President.(组成固定词组ask for)

3.There be句型是一种特殊的句子,真正的主语在后面,含义为“有„”

①谓语动词和主语保持一致:There is a television in the sitting room.

②有两个或更多的主语时,动词一般和最近的一个保持一致:There are two girls and a boy dancing in the hall.

③主语的后面有时有修饰语:There are a lot of difficulties facing us.There were many things to be done(此处也可以使用to do).

④谓语动词be可以有时态的变化:There will be a concert in the park tonight.There was little change in him.


There used to be a cinema here.

There seems to be something the matter with her.

Is there going to be any activity tonight?

⑥there be句式变疑问句,把be提前;变翻译疑问句也要借助there。

Is there any hope of getting the job?

There is nothing wrong with your watch,is there?

⑦there be句型中也可以使用诸如:live,follow,come,stand,sit,exist等不及物动词:

Once upon a time,there lived a fisherman on the island.

There came a knock at the door.

At the top of the hill there stands an old temple.

⑧用于非谓语的情况下,有时用不定式的复合结构there to be或动名词的复合结构和独立主格结构there being:

You wouldnt want there to be another war.(不定式的复合结构)

The teacher was satisfied with there being no mistakes in his homework.(动名词的复合结构)

There being nothing else to do,we went home.(独立主格结构)



1.He is running.

2.The loud voice from the upstairs made him angry.

3.The little boy is asking the teacher all kinds of questions.

4.She seemed angry.

5.My father bought me a beautiful present.

6.Why do you keep your eyes closed?

7.Will you tell us an exciting story?

8.We must keep our classroom tidy and clean.

9.I heard the baby crying in the sitting room.

10.Can you push the window open?















基本句型一: S V (主+谓) 基本句型二: S V P (主+谓+表) 基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 基本句型五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补

句型1: Subject (主语) + Verb (谓语)

此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思,这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词,动词后不可以直接接宾语,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。常见的动词如:work, sing, swim, fish, jump, arrive, come, die, disappear, cry, happen等。如:

1. The sun was shining. 太阳在照耀着。 2. The moon rose. 月亮升起了。 3. The universe remains. 宇宙长存。

4. We all breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。 5. Who cares? 管它呢?

6. What he said does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。 7. They talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。 8. The pen writes smoothly. 这支笔书写流利。

S 1. Time 2. The moon 3. The man 4. We all 5. Everybody 6. I 7. They 8. He 9.He 10.They

V (不及物动词) flies. rose. cooked. eat, and drink. Laughed. woke.

talked for half an hour. walked yesterday is playing have gone

句型2:Subject (主语) + Link. V(系动词) + Predicate(表语)


(1)表示状态。这样的词有:be, look, seem, smell, taste, sound, keep等。如: 1) This kind of food tastes delicious.这种食物吃起来很可口。 2) He looked worried just now.刚才他看上去有些焦急。

3)Several players lay flat on the playground.几个队员平躺在操场上。 4)We should remain modest and prudent any time.我们在任何时候都应该保持谦虚谨慎。

5) This kind of food tastes terrible.这种食物吃起来很糟糕。

6)The picture looks more beautiful at a certain distance.这幅画在一定的距离看更漂亮一些。

(2)表示变化。这类系动词有:become, turn, get, grow, go等。如: 1) Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer.春天到了,天气变得越来越暖和。

2) The tree has grown much taller than before.这棵树比以前长得高多了。 3) Dont have the food. It has gone bad.不要吃那种食物,已经变质了。 4)The facts prove true.事实证明是正确的。 S 1. This 2. The dinner 3. He 4. Everything 5. He 6. The book 7. The weather

V(是系动词) is

smells(闻) fell looks is is became


an English dictionary.

good. happy. different.

tall and strong.

interesting. warmer.

8. His face

turned red.

句型3:Subject(主语) + Verb (谓语) + Object (宾语)

这种句型中的动词一般为及物动词, 所谓及物动词,就是这种动词后可以直接接宾语,其宾语通常由名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句等来充当。此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。例:

1) He took his bag and left.(名词) 他拿着书包离开了。

2) Li Lei always helps me when I have difficulties. (代词)当我遇到困难时,李雷总能给我帮助。

3) She plans to travel in the coming May Day.(不定式) 她打算在即将到来的“五一”外出旅游。

4) I don’t know what I should do next. (从句)我不知道下一步该干什么 5)You can put the books in your bag.你可以把书放在书包里。

6)Farmers in our area grow lots of vegetables.我们这里的农民种很多种蔬菜。 7)She lost the chance to make her appearance on the stage.她失去了在舞台上露面的机会。

8)I prefer to make web pages.我更喜欢做网页。

S 1. Who 2. She 3. He 8. He 5. They 6. Danny 7. I 4. He

句型4: Subject(主语)+Verb(谓语)+ Indirect object(间接宾语)+Direct object (直接宾语)

此句型的句子有一个共同特点:谓语动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者,另一个是动作的间接承受者。这种句型中,直接宾语为主要宾语,表示动作是对谁做的或为谁做的,在句中不可或缺,常常由表示“物”的名词来充当;间接宾语也被称之为第二宾语,去掉之后,对整个句子的影响不大,多由指“人”的名词或代词承担。引导这类双宾语的常见动词有:buy, pass, lend, give, tell, teach, show, bring, send等。如:

1) Her father bought her a dictionary as a birthday present.

V(实义动词) knows laugh at understands made ate likes want said

O(宾语) the answer? her. English. cakes. some apples. donuts.

to have a cup of tea. "Good morning."

Her father bought a dictionary for her as a birthday present. 她爸爸给她买了一本词典作为生日礼物。

2)The old man always tells the children stories about the heroes in the Long March.

The old man always tells stories about the heroes to the children in the Long March


3)Yesterday her father bought her a bicycle as a birthday present.. 昨天她父亲给她买了一辆自行车作为生日礼物。

4)The old man is telling the children stories in the Long March. 老人正在给孩子们讲长征中的故事。 这种句型还可转换为其他两种句型:

1)动词 + 宾语 + for sb.; 2)动词 + 宾语+to sb.。

Please show me your picture. =Please show your picture to me. 请把你的画给我看一下。

Ill offer you a good chance as long as you don t lose heart. =Ill offer a good chance for you as long as you dont lose heart. 只要你不失去信心,我会给你提供机会的。

S V(及物)

o(多指人) O(多指物)

1. She 2. She 3.She 4. He 5. I 6. I 7. I 8. He

passed him her husband

a new dress. a delicious meal . a dictionary.




you her

nothing. my pictures.

a hand.

a story


him him







that the bus was late.


句型5: Subject(主语)+Verb (动词)+Object (宾语)+Complement(补语) 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。这种句型中的“宾语+补语”统称为“复合宾语”。宾语补足语的主要作用或者是补充、说明宾语的特点、身份等;或者表示让宾语去完成的动作等。担任补语的常常是

名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等。常见的动词有: tell, ask, advise, help, want, would like, order, force, allow等。如:

1)You should keep the room clean and tidy. 你应该让屋子保持干净整洁。(形容词)

2) We made him our monitor.(名词)我们选他当班长。

3) His father told him not to play in the street.(不定式)他父亲告诉他不要在街上玩。

4)My father likes to watch the boys playing basketball.(现在分词) 5) Yesterday I had a picture taken with two Americans.(过去分词) 6)Keep the children quiet, please. 请让孩子们安静下来。 7)He painted the wall white. 他把墙漆成白色。

8)We found him an honest person.我们发现他是一个诚实的人。

9) His mother told him not to play on the street.他母亲告诉他不要在街上玩。 注意:动词have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, watch等后面所接的动词不定式作宾补时,不带to。如:

6) The boss made him do the work all day.老板让他整天做那项工作。 7) I heard her sing in the next room all the time last night. 昨天晚上我听见她在隔壁唱了一个晚上。

S 1. We

V(及物) keep

(宾语) Othe table

C(宾补) clean.

2. They 3. They 4. They 5. What 6. We 7. He 8. I

painted call found makes saw asked saw

the door supper

the house him him me


green. dinner. dirty. sad? out.

to come back.

Laughing .

There be 句型

此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语 构成,用以表达存在有,一种无主语的有。它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际语。Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变化。如,

现在有 there is/are … 过去有 there was/were…

将来有 there will be…/there is /are going to be... 现在已经有 there has/have been… 可能有 there might be...

肯定有 there must be …/there must have been... 过去一直有 there used to be …

似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be …

此句型有时不用be动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等。


(一)1李明学习很努力。 2.事故是昨天下午发生的。 3春天就要来了

4我们住在这个城市已有10年了. 5学生们学习很努力。 6 她再次向我道歉。 7事故是昨天晚上发生的。 (二)1.这是本英汉辞典。 2.午餐的气味很好。 3.他堕入了情网。 4. 一切看来都不同了。 5.他长得又高又壮。 6.麻烦的是他们缺少钱。 7. 我们的井干枯了。

8. 他的脸红了。

(三)1. 谁知道答案?

2. 她微笑表示感谢。

3. 他拒绝帮他们的忙。


5. 他们吃了剩饭。



8. 他承认犯了错误。

(四)1. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。



4. 他对她什么都不拒绝



7. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。




3. 这使得他们要细想一想。


5. 他怎么会这样想?



8. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。



3. 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师。














1.Li Ming works very hard. 2.The accident happened yesterday afternoon

3.Spring is coming.

4.We have lived in the city for ten years.

5.The students work very hard. 6.She apologized to me again.

7.The accident happened yesterday evening.


1. This is an English-Chinese dictionary.

2. The dinner smells good.

3. He fell in love.

4. Everything looks different.

5. He is growing tall and strong.

6. The trouble is that they are short of money.

7. Our wel lhas gone dry.

8. His face turned red.


1. Who knows the answer?

2. She smiled her thanks. 3. He has refused to help them.。

4. He enjoys reading.

5. They ate what was left over. 6. He said "Good morning."

7. I want to have a cup of tea. 8. He admits that he was mistaken. (四)

1. She ordered herself a new dress.。

2. She cooked her husband a delicious meal.

3. He brought you a dictionary. 4. He denies her nothing. 5. I showed him my pictures.

6. I gave my car a wash.

7. I told him that the bus was late.

8. He showed me how to run the machine.


1. They appointed him manager. 2. They painted the door green. 3. This set them thinking.

4. They found the house deserted. 5. What makes him think so?

6. We saw him out. 7. He asked me to come back soon.。

8. I saw them getting on the bus.


1.There isn’t going to be a meeting tonight. 2.There was only a well in the village.

3.There is (are) a teacher of music and a teacher of art in the school.

4.Among the guests there were two Americans and two Frenchmen.

5.The weatherman says there’ll be a strong wind in the afternoon.

6.The light is on. There must be someone ion the office.

7.There used to be a cinema here before the war. 8.There happened to be nobody in the room.

9.Once, there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 10.There comes the bus.

11.There remained just twenty-eight dollars.

12.In front of the cave, there stands(grows) a tall pine tree.

13.There goes the bell. 14.There are twenty-eight days in February.

1 简单句、并列句、复合句 根据语法形式,即句子的结构,英语的句子可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。 1 简单句 句型:主语+谓语 只包含一个主谓结构,而句子的各个结构都只由单词或短语表示。简单句有五种基本句型, 详见第十七章。 They are playing baseball in the garden. 他们正在公园里打棒球。 Her brother and sister both are teachers. 她的哥哥和姐姐都是老师。 2 并列句 句型:简单句+并列连词+简单句 (常见的并列连词有 and,but,or) 并列句是由两个或两个以上的简单句连接而成。 并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要, 相互之 间没有从属关系,是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词连结。 My friend was at home, and we talked for along time. 我的朋友在家,我们谈了好长时间。 Her father is a doctor and her mother is a teacher. 她父亲是个医生,她母亲是个老师。 I liked the story very much but Li Ming wasnt interested in it. 我非常喜欢这个故事,可是李明却对它不感兴趣。 Hurry up,or youll be late. 快点,否则你就会迟到的。 3 复合句 句型:主句+连词+从句;或连词+从句+主句(包含一个主句、一个或一个以上的从句,或只 包含一个从句,但有两个或两个以上的主句的句子叫复合句。) 句子的成分 组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分。句子成分包括:主语、谓语、表语、宾语(直接宾语、 间接宾语)、宾语补足语、定语和状语。主语和谓语是句子主体部分(在英文中一般的句子

必须有主语和谓语)。表语、宾语和宾语补足语是谓语里的组成部分。其他成分如定语和状 语是句子的次要部分。下面我们分别讲述一下句子的各个成分: 1 主语 主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示所说的“是什么”或“是谁”。一般由名词、代词、不定式或 相当于名词的词或短语来充当。它在句首。 We study in No.1 Middle School.(讲述“谁”~) 我们在一中学习。 The classroom is very clean. (讲述“什么”很干净) 这间教室很干净。 Three were absent.(数词作主语) 三个人缺席。 To teach them English is my job. (不定式作主语) 教他们英语是我的工作。 注意 不定式作主语时,常用形式主语 it 句型,因此左例可变为 It is my job to teach them English. (真正的主语是 to teach them English.) 2 谓语 说明主语“做什么”,“是什么”或“怎么样”。

谓语(谓语部分里主要的词)必须用动词。谓语和主语在人称和数两方面必须一致。它在主 语后面。 His Parents are doctors. (系动词和表语一起作谓语) 他的父母亲是医生。 She looks well.(系动词和表语一起作谓语) 她看起来气色(面色)很好。 We stud
y hard.(实义动词作谓语) 我们努力学习。 We have finished reading the book. (助动词和实义动词一起作谓语) 我们已经看完了这本书。 He can speak English. (情态动词和实义动词作谓语) 他会说英语。 3 表语 表语说明主语“是什么”或者“怎么样”,由名词、形容词、副词、介词、不定式及相当于 名词或形容词的词或短语来担任。它的位置在系动词后面。 You look younger than before.(形容词作表语) 你看起来比以前年轻。

I am a teacher.(名词作表语) 我是个老师。 Everybody is here.(副词作表语) 所有的人都出席了。 They are at home now.(介词短语作表语) 他们现在在家。 My job is to teach them English.(不定式作表语) 我的工作是教他们英语。 4 宾语 宾语是动作、行为的对象,由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任,它和及 物动词一起说明主语做什么,在谓语之后。 (直接宾语、间接宾语详见后面五种基本句型)。 She is playing the piano now.(名词作宾语) 她正在弹钢琴。 He often helps me.(代词作宾语) 他常常帮助我。 He likes to sleep in the open air.(不定式作宾语) 他喜欢在露天睡觉。 We enjoy living in China.(动名词作宾语) 我们高兴住在中国。 5 状语

状语用来修饰动词、形容词或副词。一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等 意义, 一般由副词、 介词短语、 不定式或相当于副词的词或短语来表示。 状语一般放在句末, 但有的可以放在句首、句中。(详见副词) He did it carefully.(副词作状语) 他仔细、认真地做这项工作。 Without his help,we couldnt work it out. (介词短语作状语) 如果没有他的帮助,我们不可能解决这个问题。 (In order) to catch up with my classmates, I must study hard.(不定式作目的状 语) 为了赶上我的同学,我必须努力学习。 6 定语 定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不定式或相当于形 容词的词或短语等都可以担任定语。 因为它是修饰名词或代词的, 而名词和代词又可以作主 语, 还可以作表语和宾语, 所以定语的位置很灵活, 凡是有名词、 代词的地方都可以有定语。 The black bike is mine . (形容词作定语) I have something to do . 英语五个基本句式 (不定式作定语)

从英语的句子结构上说, 除了修饰名词的定语和修饰动词的状语外, 在千变万化的句子 中可归纳为五个基本句式,一般地说,某些 动词用在某一句式中,下面笔者把这些句型和常用的动词进行归类,供你参考。 1.S(主) + Vi(不及物动词)(谓)

Time flies. 1) S + V + adverbial(状语) Birds sing beautifully. 2) S + Vi+ prep Phr
ase(介词短语) He went on holiday. 3) S + Vi+ Infinitive (不定式) We stopped to have a rest. 4) S + Vi+ Participle (分词) Ill go swimming. 2. S (主)+ Vt (及物动词)(谓)+ O(宾) We like English. 1) S + VT + N/Pron I like music. I like her. 2) S + VT + infinitive(不定式) I want to help him. 常用于这句型的动词有:attempt, dare, decide, desire, expect, hope, intend, learn, need, offer, pretend, promise, propose, purpose, refuse, want, wish 等。 3) S + VT + Wh-Word + Infinitive

I dont know what to do. 常用于这句型的动词有:ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, guess, inquire, know, learn, observe, remember, see, settle, tell, think, understand, wonder 等。 4) S + VT + Gerund I enjoy living here. 常用于这句型的动词有:admit, advise, avoid, consider, defend, enjoy, excuse, finish, forbid, mind, miss, practise, risk, suggest, give up, cant help 等。 5) S + VT + That-clause I dont think (that) he is right. 常用于这句型的动词有:Admit, believe, command, confess, declare, demand, deny, doubt, expect, explain, feel(觉得) , hear(听说), hope, imagine, intend, know, mean, mind(当心), notice, propose, request, report, say, see (看出),show, suggest, suppose, think, understand, wish, wonder(觉得奇怪)。 3. S (主)+ V(谓)(lv)( 系动词)+ P(表) We are Chinese. 除了 be 系动词外,还有一些动词也可以用作系动词,1)表感官的动词,feel, smell, taste, sound, look, appear, seem 等。 2) 表转变变化的动词,become, get, grow, turn, go,等。 3)表延续的动词 remain, keep, seem, hold, stay, rest 等。

4)表瞬时的动词 come, fall, set, cut, occur 等 5)其他动词 eat, lie, prove, ring, run, shine, sit, stand, continue, hang 等。 1) S + Lv + N/Pron(名词/代词) He is a boy. This is mine. 2) S + Lv + Adj(形容词) She is beautiful. 3) S + Lv + Adv (副词) Class is over. 4) S + Lv + Prep Phrase He is in good health. 5) S + Lv + Participle(分词) He is excited. The film is interesting. 4. S (主)+ VT (谓)+ In O(间接 宾) + D O(直接 宾) I give you help. 1) S + VT + N/Pron + N I sent him a book. I bought May a book.

2) S + VT + N/Pron + To/for-phrase He sent a book to me. He bought a coat for me. 间接宾语前需要加 to 的常用动词有:allow, bring, deny, do(带来), give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, render, restore, sell, send, show, teach, tell wish, write 等。 间接宾语前需要加 for 的常用动词有:bring, buy, cash, choose, fetch, get, leave, make, order, paint, play(演奏), save, sing, spare 等。 5. S (主)+ VT(谓)+ O(宾) + O C(宾补) I make you clear. 1) S + VT + N/Pron + N We named our baby Tom. 常用于这句型的动词有:appoint, call, choose, elect, entitle, find, make, name, nominate(命名)。 2) S + VT + N/Pron + Adj
He painted the wall white. 常用于这句型的动词有: beat, boil, cut, drive, find, get, hold, keep, leave, like, make, paint, see, set, turn, want, wash, wipe, wish 等。

3) S + VT + N/Pron + Prep Phrase She always keeps everything in good order. 4) S + VT + N/Pron + Infinitive I wish you to stay. I made him work 常用于这句型的动词有: a)不定式带 to 的词: advice, allow, ask, beg, cause, choose, command, decide, encourage, expect, force, get, hate, invite, know, leave, like, love, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remain, request, teach, tell, want, warn, wish 等。b)不定式不带 to 的词:feel, have, hear, know, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, see, watch 等。 5) S + VT + N/Pron + Participle (分词) I heard my name called. I feel something moving. 常用于这句型的动词有:catch, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, leave, listen to, look at, notice, observe, perceive, see, set, smell, start, watch 等。 6) S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-word + Infinitive He show me how to do it. 常用于这句型的动词有:advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell 等。

7) S + VT + N/Pron + That-clause He told me that the film was great. 常用于这句型的动词有:assure, inform, promise, remind, teach, tell, warm 等。 S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-Clause He asked me what he should do. 常用于这句型的动词有:Advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell.



基本概念:与汉语相似,英语句子是由主语(subject), 谓语动词(verb),宾语(object), 表语(predicative),状语(adverbial),宾语补足语(object complement)等成分组成, 按照这些成分的组合方式英语句子可分为五种基本句型。英语句子看上去纷繁庞杂,但仔细观察不外乎五个基本句式。这五个基本句式可以演变出多种复杂的英语句子。换言之,绝大多数英语句子都是由这五个基本句式生成的。这五个基本句式如下:




S十V十O1十O2 主谓双宾结构

S十V十O十C 主谓宾补结构

说 明 : S=主语;V=谓语;P=表语;O=宾语;O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语;


基本句型一: S十V主谓结构

不及物动词本身就可以表达完整的意思, 不需要宾语及补语, 但有时可有副词, 介词短语等状语修饰语。 e.g. The rain stopped .

The old man walks in the park .

The red sun rises in the east. 一轮红日从东方升起。

The Second World War broke out in 1939. 1939年爆发了第二次世界大战。

这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词,这些动词常见的有:appear, apologize,arrive, come, die, disappear, exist, fall, happen, rise,work等等。如

1). 学生们学习很努力。_____________________________________

2). 她再次向我道歉。 _______________________________________

3). 事故是昨天晚上发生的。 _____________________________________

4). 一天,她欢快地走进我的房间。



常见的能带同源宾语的动词有:lead, live, die, sleep, dream, breathe, smile, laugh, fight, run,


4). Under the leadership of the Party, the peasants lead a happy life.

5). I dreamed a terrible dream last night.

6). Our soldiers fought a wonderful fight against the floods last August.

7). He died a glorious death.


Peter is waiting for Kate at school gate.


e.g. The machine works smoothly. (机器运转正常。)

2.There +不及物动词+主语 彼特正在校门口等凯特。

e.g. There is some milk in the bottle .

There comes the bus .

3. 主语+不及物动词+ 动词不定式

e.g. They stopped to take a short rest . (他们停下来稍作休息)


动词stop 可用作不及物动词,也可用作及物动词。作不及物动词时, 通常后接动词不定式,表示停下来的目的是做另一件事。作及物动词时,通常后接动名词,表示停止做这件事。 e.g. they stopped taking a rest .

基本句型二: S十V十P主系表结构

常见的系动词有be, feel, taste, smell, sound,seem, look(看起来),get(变),appear, keep, remain,及表变化类的动词如become(变),turn(变),grow, go,等。prove表证明是时也是系动词。

1)The story sounds interesting.

2) Her dream has come true.

3)My books are on the desk.

4)The food seems to be nice. 那个故事听起来很有趣。 她的梦想实现了。 我的书在书桌上。 这食物似乎不错



1. 李甜甜是个聪明的女孩。

2. 张飞在三年级六班。

4. 早起有益于身体健康。

5. 这些玫瑰花闻起来很香。


8) We should __________ __________ any time. 我们在任何时候都应该保持谦

9) 这种食物尝起来很糟糕。_________________________________________________.

10) Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer. 春天到了,天气变得越来越暖和。

11) Dont have the food. _______________________________.


12) The fact __________ ___________. 这个事实证明是正确的。

基本句型三: S十V十O主谓宾结构

及物动词后需要一个动作的接受者(宾语),才能使句意表达完整、准确。作宾语的成分是 名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句。

e.g. We are learning english .

Do you know him ?

Your radio needs repairing .

She hopes to see her uncle.

13) 我昨天看了一部电影。___________________________________________.

14) You place me in a difficult situation.

15 They finally managed to get along with us.

16)They have ________ ________ _________ of the children.这些孩子他们照看得很好。

17)I don’t like being treated like this.


1. 她每天晚上看电视。

2. 明天下午我们将进行英语考试。

3. 大多数人很喜欢轻音乐。

4. 她几乎不知道该如何写作文

基本句型四: S十V十O1十O2 主谓双宾结构,O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语

英语中有些及物动词能跟双宾语,即间接宾语(指人)和直接宾语(指物) 。通常情况下间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后. e.g. Her mother bought her a skirt.

Give me the book, please.

能跟双宾语的动词常见的有:ask, bring, take, buy, cost, fetch, give, hand, pass, lend, offer, pay, read, save, send, show, teach, tell, write等。如:

18)Yesterday her father _______________ ________ _____ ____________ as a birthday present. 昨天她父亲给她买了一辆自行车作为生日礼物。

19) The old man is telling the children stories in the Long March.

注意lend 和borrow 的区别。相对于主语而言,“借入”用borrow sth from sb. 相对于主语而言,“借出”用lend sb sth/ lend sth to sb.另外注意take 和bring的区别是针对说话人而言,“拿离说话人”,用take, “拿向说话人”用bring.


A. 动词 + 直接宾语 + for sb.

B. 动词 + 直接宾语 + to sb.

能用到A句型的动词有buy, make, cook, get, choose, sing, find, order(订购), do (做),


Uncle Li bought me a birthday present.(=Uncle Li bought a birthday present for me.) 李叔叔给我买了一件生日礼物。

能用到B句型的的动词有give, lend, teach, take, return, send, pass, tell(告诉) ,

sell(卖),write(写给), show(出示) , bring(带给), leave(留给), offer(提供), hand(交给) 等。例如:

Please pass him a cup of tea.(=Please pass a cup of tea to him.) 请递给他一杯茶。

3.既能用到A句型又能用到B句型的动词有do, leave, write, bring等。例如:

He brought me a dictionary.(=He brought a dictionary for/to me.)

20) Please show me your picture. ==Please _________ ________ __________ _____

_____. 请把你的画给我看一下。

21) Ill offer you a good chance as long as you don t lose heart. ==

Ill offer ____ _________ ____________ _______ ________ as long as you dont lose heart.



误:Please give me them. 正:Please give them to me.


基本句型五: S十V十O十C 主谓宾补结构


1) We elected Liu Lei monitor. 我们选刘磊当班长。(elect,choose, appoint, make, call,

这个消息使他很不愉快。 你不应当让他一个人去那儿。 我找人把自行车修好了。 请保持教室清洁。 她让我再给他打个电话。 name等词后面跟表示职位的名词做宾语补足语时,职位名词前不要冠词) 2) The news made him unhappy. 4) I had the bike repaired. 3) You shouldnt let him go there alone. 5) Please keep the classroom clean. 6) She asked me to call him again.

22)Keep ________________________________, please. 请让孩子们安静下来。



1.后跟名词作宾语补足语的动词有call, name, make, choose, think,elect, appoint等。例如: We call him Tom for short. 我们简称他为汤姆。

2.后跟形容词做宾语补足语的动词有keep, make, find, get, think等。例如:

It’s very hot here. We’d better keep the windows open.



感官动词(see, watch, look at ,observe, notice, listen to , hear, find,feel, ..)+宾语+宾补(do , v-ing, done )

Eg. We saw him playing in the playground.

使役动词(make, have, get, let, cause,…)+宾语+宾补(do / to do , v-ing, done )

其中: make, have, let +宾语+宾补(do , v-ing, done )

get, cause+宾语+宾补(to do , v-ing, done )

4.另外表愿望,命令,要求等意义的动词后可接to do来当宾语补足语,如ask , want , wish ,expect, like, tell,order...

He asked me to pass him the book.. Our headteacher wants us to keep the classroom clean.


初高中衔接 -------- 五大基本句型

教学目标:帮助学生复习巩固五大基本句型,了解基本句型结构并灵活运用。 教学重难点:S+V+IO+DO S+V+O+OC 一. Presentation

1) Money talks. 2) The students work very hard. 3) She apologized to me again. 4) The serious accident happened in the city center yesterday evening. 5) The old man often walks in the park after supper.

6) Getting up early and going to bed early is a good habit. 7) To say is one thing, to do is another.

8) No matter what happened, he always kept calm.

9) The trouble they are facing is that they are short of money. 10) She lost the chance to make her appearance on the stage. 12) I prefer to make web pages.

13) Diligence makes up the deficiency in ability. 14)We can’t wait to know what to do with the case.

15) Yesterday her father bought her a bicycle as a birthday present. 16) The old man is telling the children stories about the Long March. 17) We found him an honest person.

18) His mother told him not to play on the street. 19) I found my money stolen.

20) I noticed him reading a novel when I came into the classroom. 总结五大基本句型:

1) ________________________ 2)__________________________

3)__________________________4)_____________________________ 5)___________________________

二. Practice


1. The sun has risen 2. The government built the nature reserve. 3. This kind of food tastes terrible. 4. She cooked her husband a delicious meal.

5. I couldn’t remember all the faces and names at first. 6. I found the article on wildlife interesting. 7.We consider it a pity that he has stopped doing the experiment. 8. The speaker found himself misunderstood.

9. The swan is swimming. 10. I feel quite hungry.

11. Sandy thought herself a good birdwatcher. 12. What you have done made me happy.

13. I’ll offer you a good chance as long as you don’t lose heart. 14. The picture looks more beautiful at a certain distance. 15. The reserve gives wildlife an ideal home.

16. The headmaster suggested that we should work hard and achieve high grades. 17. Birdwatching is interesting.. 18. The students are counting the birds. 2. 翻译下列句子

(一)主+ 不及物动词( vi ) 常见的不及物动词___________________________________________.1)我的家乡发生了巨大变化。 2)我们的图书馆位于学校的东面。

3)许多动物和植物已经从地球上消失了。 (二)、主 + 及物动词(vt) + 宾语

1)我收到了很多鲜花,但是我没有接受。 2).非常有趣的是小孩经常问妈妈他从哪里来。 3) 我相信他所说的话。

4)暑假期间我花了很多时间读书。 (三)、主 + 系动词 + 表语

常见系动词_ ___________________________________________ 1)我们在任何时候都应该保持诚实。 2)食物在夏天容易变坏。


(四)、主 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

总结常跟双宾语的动词_________________________________________ 1)我希望你能一个月给我写两封信。 2)这本新的英汉词典花了我100元。


(五)、主 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾补 adj , doing , done , do , to do, to be、 常见动词有:


2)我们已经把我们的学校变成了一个美丽的花园。 3)刚才我看见他在操场上踢足球。

Sb. + think / find / consider / feel / make / believe+ it (形式宾语)+ adj. / n. + to do---/ that 从句---- 1) 我认为劝他戒烟是没用的.

2) 我认为他昨天没来参加晚会很奇怪。




思考:我们已经学过哪些主要时态: ? 一.解决时态问题,要遵循如下的思路:



1.把握各种时态的特点 2.准确理解语境意义,捕捉隐含的时间信息。 3.解决时态问题,一般用时间段来表示。

4. 几组重要时态的区别:(1)一般过去时和现在完成时(2)一般过去时和过去进行时(3)现在进行时和过去进行时 (4)现在完成时和过去完成时 三.一般现在时:

1. 1)I play football after school every afternoon.

2) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2. 1) I will tell him the news as soon as I see him.

2) I will not go to the countryside if it rains tomorrow. 3.1) The train arrives at 10:30. There is plenty of time. 2) The final exams take place next week. 练一练: 1. I _______ table tennis quite well but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. A will play B have played C played D play 2. I won’t attend her birthday party if I _____(not invite).

3. 下次见面时咱们再讨论这个问题。

4. 你来了我再走。 5. 每当我陷入困境,她很乐意帮助我。 一般过去时:

Examples:1. She always got up late and never had enough time for breakfast. 2.Oh, it’s you. I didn’t recognize you. Nacy is not coming tonight. –But she promised.

lived here last year.

woke up, put on his clothes, washed his face and rushed out, hoping to catch the early

’m a teacher now but I _____ in a foreign company for 4 years.

1)Will you be free tonight?

2)I will leave for Canada next Friday. 2. 1) It is going to rain.

2) They are going to set up a laboratory next year. 3) 首相将要访问美国。 4)下周一上交你的作业。 练习:注意区别

1.—Henry, the phone is ringing. Do you want me to go? --No, sit still. I______ it.

A will get B am going to get C am to get

2.No one ______ (leave) this building without the permission of the police. 3. -- Ann is in hospital.

-- Oh, really? I ____ know. I __ go and visit her.

A. didn’t; am going to B. don’t; would C. don’t will D. didnt; will 4.Now we are in Xuzhou. Tomorrow we are flying to Beijing . 5.I have a trip to Nanjing this week. I____(take) my wife and son. 6. Hurry up! The train is about to leave. Be quiet! The film is about to start.

过去将来时:主要用于主句是一般过去时的宾语从句中,表示从句动作发生在主句之后。 1. Last week he promised he would come, but he hasn’t come until now. 2. You were going to give me some help but you didn’t. 3. I was about to go to bed when someone knocked at the door.

4. The old woman would stand in front of the house , waiting for her son .(过去习惯)。


1. 1) It is snowing hard outside.

2) What are they quarrelling about?

2. 1) I am meeting Peter at the airport this afternoon. 2) We are leaving Tangzhang high school after 3 years. 3)Don’t believe him; He is always telling lies.


1. When he came in, we were discussing the matter.

2. Whenever I visited him, he was always sitting on the chair. 练一练:

1. The students ______(work) busily when Miss li went to get her book. 2.--Oh, where is my wallet? Maybe I left it in the car. ---You ____ things behind!

A are always leaving B left C have left D always leave


1. 1) I have finished all the homework.

2) Jane has told me the news.

2. 1) Peter has been ill for almost a month. 2) I have lived in this city all my life. 3) He hasn’t been here for 5 years.

Notes: 1. This/It is the first/second time that 从句中 用 现在完成时(have done) 2. It is/ has been + 一段时间+ since 从句…中,从句动词通常用一般过去时。 3. This is the most interesting novel that I have read recently. (1)---Do you know our town at all?

--- No, this is the first time that I ___ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. have gone (2) It is/ has been two weeks since we came here.


Tt was the second time that I had been to China. This was the best film that we had seen.


become/be; start/be on; die/be dead; leave/ be away; join the army/serve(be in) the army; buy/ have; borrow/ keep; come/be例如: (1)She _____Robert for ten years. A. married B. married with C. hasbeen marrying D. has been married to

2) She has left here for a year . 过去完成时 1.1) I had just finished half of the work by yesterday. 2) When Tom came in, we had had our breakfast. 3)By the end of last term, we had mastered more than 1,000 words.

2.1) I had hoped to be back last night, but I didn’t catch the train. 2) I had intended to come to the party, but I was busy.


(1) sb. had hardly/ scarcely done…when sb did…, (2) Sb had no sooner done…than sb did… A)我一告诉她这个消息她就大哭了起来。

Eg: 1)She began to cry as soon as / the moment /immediately I told her the news. 2)I had hardly told her the news when she began to cry out.

= Hardly/ Scarcely had I told her the news when she began to cry out. =No sooner had I told ….than she began to…

B)Scarcely had he finished his supper when he went out. C) No sooner had he arrived home than it began to rain.

四. 几组重要时态的区别:(1)一般过去时和现在完成时(2)一般过去时和过去进行时(3)现在进行时和过去进行时(4)现在完成时和过去完成时 Group A

1 We haven’t heard from her for a long time; what do you think _____(happen) to her? 2 –Where __ you ___ the book? I can’t see it anywhere. --- I ____it right here. But now It’s gone. (put)

3 When I was at college I_____(speak) three foreign languages but I____ (forget) all except a few words of each.




基本句型 一

S +V(主+谓)此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。 这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。

这些动词常见的有:take place, happen, break out, appear, disappear, apologize, arrive, come, die, exist, fall, rise, hang(可作及物动词或不及物动词)等等。

S V (不及物动词)

1. Time flies.

2. The moon rose.

3. The man cooked.

4. We all eat, and drink.

5. Everybody laughed?

6. I woke.

7. They talked for half an hour.

8. He walked yesterday

9.He is playing

10.They have gone

基本句型 二

S +V +P(主+系+表)

动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, feel,smell,taste,sound等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn,go等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义另:stay,prove,remain,stand


S V(是系动词) P(表语)

1. This is an English dictionary.

2. The dinner smells(闻) good.

3. He fell happy.

4. Everything looks different.

5. He is tall and strong.

6. The book is interesting.

7. The weather became warmer.

8. His face turned red.

基本句型 三

S +V +O(主+谓+宾)


S V(实义动词) O(宾语)

1. Who 7. I ate

2. She 4. He likes

3. He knows want

8. He laugh at said

5. They understands the answer?

6. Danny made her.

English. some apples. to have a cup of tea. cakes. donuts.

S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾)



3主语+ 谓语+宾语




(3)我昨天看了一部名叫Gone With The Wind的电影。




afford,agree,choose,decide,demand,desire,determine, fail,hope,manage,offer,plan,prepare,pretend,promise,refuse,seek,threaten,wish,arrange,learn,etc.



动词短语有: go on,give up,put off,feel like 等。

(1) 你真的无法想象再这样的环境下生活。(imagine) (2)你做完作业了吗?(finish)

(3)我们必须避免再犯这样的错误。avoid (4)你介不介意我在这吸烟?mind


4. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语

这种句型中作间接宾语的常常指“人”,直接宾语常常指“物”。这类词常有award,give, offer , bring, buy ,show等

这种句型还可转换为其他两种句型:1)动词+ 宾语 + for sb.( buy,);

2)动词 + 宾语+to sb.(give,offer,show)如:





5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语


The news made me excited. 这里excited 就是me 的宾语补足语。


A . 不定式前带 to


advise, cause, allow, drive, encourage, expect, force, intend, invite, permit, tell, trust, urge, persuade, remind, teach, want, warn, get, ask, forbid, beg, require, tempt, enable, lead, instruct 等,


1. 他叫我跟他一起去逛街。 2. 村民们不允许他们做这。(allow)

3. 老师告诉他今晚六点钟过来这里。 4. 他说服了弟弟上床睡觉。

5. 史密斯夫妇邀请我去他们家里吃饭。 6. 玛丽提醒我要准时参加会议

7. 爸爸警告我不要吸烟。 8. 他想我跟他一起工作。

9. 我期待他能在考试中成功。 10. 我更喜欢你呆在这里。

11. 我讨厌他今晚过来吃饭。 12. 老师要求我们在9点钟之前交作业。(require)

13. 约翰建议玛丽干什么? 14. 石油的短缺(shortage)导致了价格的急剧上升。

15. 我的好朋友鼓励我不要放弃。 16. 最后一辆公共汽车开走了,我被迫要打的。

17. 参观者请勿拍照。(permit) 18. 你可以相信我不会跟任何人讲。(trust)

19. 她力劝他留下。(urge) 20. 你能教我干那活儿吗?

21. 他让姐姐帮助他做作业。(get) 22. 在考试过程中禁止离开课室。(forbid)

23. 我希望你今晚可以过来。(like) 24. 饥饿驱使她去偷窃。

25. 她求他别离开。(beg)

26. 这种软件使你能在几秒钟之内便可访问互联网。(enable)

27. 他的话使我去找出真相。(lead) 28. 他指示我开灯。

29. 他打算让他的孩子成为医生。(intend) 30. 我很愿意让他来和我们住在一起。(love)

B . 不定式前不带 to


1. 我看到所有的杯子都掉到地上了。 2. 我最终使她改变了主意。

3. 我听到了他在房间里唱歌。 4. 我让他打扫了教室。

5. 我注意到他走进了那家工厂。 6. 我觉得有东西在我的手臂上爬着(crawl up)。

C . 不定式为to be

在一些动词后面的宾语补足语常是to be,如:believe, consider, declare, find, imagine, know, prove, suppose, feel, think, understand等等。

1. 这个答案证明是错的。 2. 我认为他是一个好学生。(think)

3. 我相信他是诚实的。 (believe) 4. 你能想象他成为一名歌星吗?

5. 我发觉他很吝啬。(find) 6. 我认为他很蠢。(consider)

7. 总统宣布他成为市长。declare 8. 我们知道她很勤奋。

9. 我猜想他是一个好的领导。suppose 10. 她认为她有责任告诉警察。consider



1. 我发现蛇正在吃鸡蛋。 2. 我发现鸡蛋被蛇吃了。

3. 我发现她的房子重新粉刷过了。 4. 我看到他被人打。

5. 这里太吵了。别人很难听到我的话。(make)

6. 因为我的英语很差,我不能用英语表达我的意思。(make)

7. 我让别人修理我的车。(have,make,get)

8. 你没隔多久理一次发?(have, get) 9. 我把工作留下来给别人做。leave

10. 我让机器整个晚上在运转。have 11. 我听到有人在叫我。hear

12. 我听到我的名字被人叫。 hear 13. 我注意到杯子碎了。notice

14. 老师让学生一直在阅读课文。(keep) 15. 我让门锁着。(keep)


常用形容词作宾补的动词有: keep, leave, find, make, feel, think, consider等

1. 学生要保持课室清洁。 2. 不要留着门开着。

3. 我发觉这本书很有趣。 4. 我觉得跟他聊天很有趣。

5. 他把囚犯们都释放了。(set) 6. 我认为不可能在如此短的时间内完成作业。


常用名词作宾补的动词有:find, name, call, elect, make, choose 等

1. 我觉得他是一个很聪明的学生。2. 我们选他作班长。

3. 小孩子们叫他大拇指叔叔。 4. 群众让他当上了总统。

5. 那对夫妇把孩子命名为约翰。

5)、由 as 构成的短语作宾补

常用as构成的短语作宾补的动词有:consider„as, treat„as, regard„as, look on„as, have„as, take„as, think of„as等

1. 你决不能认为他是一个自私的人。 2. 他们把我当作是女儿来看待。

3. 我把它当作是一个艰巨的任务。 4. 我们能让谁作校长呢?

5. 她把他说的话看作是称誉(compliment)。(take...as)

6.There be 句型

此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语构成,用以表达存在有,一种无主语的有。它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际语。Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变化。如,

现在有 there is/are „ 过去有 there was/were„

将来有 there will be„/there is /are going to be... 可能有 there might be...

肯定有 there must be „/there must have been... 过去一直有 there used to be „ 似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be „

碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be „

此句型有时不用be动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等。


1.今晚没有会。 2.这个村子过去只有一口井。

3.这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师。 4.客人当中有两名美国人和两名法国人。

5.天气预报说下午有大风。 6.灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。

7.战前这儿一直有家电影院的。 8.恰好那时房里没人。


10.公共汽车来了。 11.就只剩下二十八美元了。

12.在这个山洞前面长着一棵高大的松树。 13.铃响了。

14.二月份有二十八天。 15.村子里面住在几百人。

16.车子到达了。 17.在地球上存在着许多物种。

18.有几个笔记本躺在桌子上面。 19.刚好有100块在我的口袋里。


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