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高考英语口语考试内容

2022-05-14 15:55:14 国学 0 评论
2016考研英语复试口语考试内容与形式

2016考研英语复试口语考试内容与形式

2016考研英语初试已经渐渐远去,复试却日益逼近。文都老师建议大家在估分之后,能达到复试分数线的同学,一定要提早着手准备。今天小编将给大家介绍一下2016考研复试英语口语的考查要求、内容与形式。

一、研究生复试英语口语要求:

2016考研英语复试口语考试内容与形式

2016考研英语复试口语考试内容与形式

来源:文都教育

2016考研英语初试已经渐渐远去,复试却日益逼近。文都老师建议大家在估分之后,能达到复试分数线的同学,一定要提早着手准备。今天小编将给大家介绍一下考研复试英语口语的考查要求、内容与形式。

一、研究生复试英语口语要求:

有能力参与一般性或专业学术话题的讨论,不仅能够询问事实,还能询问抽象的信息。 能够就某一观点的正确与否进行争论,详细说明一个问题、一个过程或一个事件。 此外还能就某个一般性问题或所熟悉领域的问题进行阐述。

这个要求看似很抽象,其实概括下来就很简单,看你有没有基本的英语口头表达能力!所以,你只要在短短的十几分钟时间内能让面试官看出来,你用英语表达基本没问题,就可以了!

二、复试口语考查的内容包含如下两部分:

1.考查我们理解并回答有关日常生活、家庭、工作、学习等问题(3--5分钟)。

2.考查我们连续表达的能力,从所给的问题中选择一个话题,就此话题表达自己的看法(7--10分钟)。

三、针对这个内容要求,各个院校所采用的具体实现形式是不同的。主要有以下三种形式:

1.自我介绍。大部分高校口语考试的第一部分都是简短的自我介绍,这个可以说是复试英语的必考问题。因此,准备一个完备的令人印象深刻的自我介绍,至关重要!这个当然我们可以提前写好背熟,然后在考场上很自然的表达出来。一般包括这样的内容:姓名年龄,原专业院校,兴趣爱好等,现在所报考的专业,然后说明你对该专业有怎样的兴趣,或者对当前该专业发展的简短评价等等。由于每个人的复试时间有限,说2到3分钟,大概400-500词就可以。

2.常见问题。常见问题的操作是灵活多样的,没有一个太具体的标准,通常会问到一些

常见问题。比如What’s your plans during the postgraduate study你在研究生期间会有哪些计划?What’s your impression of our city? 你对我们这个城市有什么印象,等等。当然,还有些考官会根据你的自我介绍内容随机问问题,所以,对自我介绍中的相关信息要提前做准备,以防万一答不上来!

3.小组讨论。这种形式对口语的要求比较高,一般像211,985的院校有时会采取这种考察形式。所以,考生还要对一些热点话题进行总结训练,一定不能想着去靠临场发挥,因为临时想很难组织语言,除非你的口语特别厉害,否则临时很难想得完美。

2016考研学子们经历的艰辛的初试,现在终于看到了胜利的曙光,在这最后关头,千万不要懈怠,要继续努力,坚持到底。按照复试口语的要求认真备考,文都教育老师与你们同在,直至取得最后的胜利!

考研英语复试口语考核内容及评分标准

考研英语复试口语考核内容及评分标准

考研英语复试口试很多细节需要同学们注意,下面我们为大家整合考研英语复试口语测试内容及评分标准,包括复习中的口试要求、英语复试口语常见问题总结和提前准备的问题,希望给广大在准备中的学子们带来帮助。

一、复试中的口试要求

1、评价标准:

(1)语言准确性(语法和用词的准确性、语法结构的复杂性、词汇的丰富程度、发音的准确性)

(2)话语的长短和连贯性(内容的连贯性、寻找合适词语而造成的停顿频率及长短、表达思想的语言长短等)

(3)语言的灵活性和适合性(语言表达是否灵活、自然,话语是否得体,语言能否与语境、动能和目的相适应)

2、口语测试一般包含如下两部分:

第一部分:考查学生理解并回答有关日常生活、家庭、工作、学习等问题的能力(3--5分钟)

第二部分:考查学生连续表达的能力。考生从所给的问题中选择一个话题,就此话题表达自己的看法(7--10分钟)。

3、评价成绩一般为:

a优秀--能用外语就指定的话题进行口头交流,基本没有困难

b良好--能用外语就指定的题材进行口头交流,虽有些困难,但不影响交流 c及格--能用外语就指定的话题进行简单的口头交流

d不及格--不具有口头表达能力

二、考研英语复试口语常见问题总结

1. Where do you come from?

2. What kind of landscapesurrounds your hometown?

3. What do you do duringthe Spring Festival?

4. Tell me something aboutthe customs of your hometown。

5. Could you tell mesomething about your family?

6. What socialresponsibilities should a post-graduate take?

7. Which kind of professordo you like best?

8. What does friendship meanto you and what kind of people do you make friend with?

9. What is your major? Howdo you like your major?

10. When and where did yougraduate? What qualifications have you obtained?

11. What impressed youmost when you were at university?

12. What is the bestuniversity in your opinion?

13. Do you think thesubjects you are studying today are relevant to present-day society? Why ?

14. What do you do for aliving?

15. What are your jobprospects?

16. If you had theopportunity to change your subject, what would you do with it?

17. What are your sparetime interests?

18. Where have you beentraveling to? Which place interested you most?

19. What kind ofdifferences in the system of higher education between China and othercountries?

20. Do you think you willbe able to cope with English-demands of your intended study program?

21. What difficulties doyou think youll encounter in your studies?

22. Why did you choose ouruniversity?

23. If there were anopportunity of studying abroad, what would you do?

24. Should you study moretheory or do more practice? Give your reasons, please。

25. What do you intend todo after you finish studying?

26. How serious isunemployment among young people and what will you do if you cannot find a jobafter graduation?

27. In your opinion, whatare the most serious problems associated with modern life?

28. What do you think havebeen the most important changes in your study field over the past 5 years?

29. How do you afford yourtuition?

30. Does your familysupport your decision on studying? What help do they offer?

三、提前准备,适当练习

1、见面问候语:Goodmorning/afternoon,dearprofessors.IamXXX.(Nicetomeetyou。)。告别用语:Thanksforyourtime./Thankyouforgivingsuchachance.Ihopetoseeyouagainandsoon。

2、自我介绍篇(重点)。基本上每个院校每个专业的口试中都会涉及这一方面。考官其实是要借此了解你的口头表达能力以及你的报名表之外的一些信息。自我介绍时间以2-3分钟为宜。思路要清楚,要突出重点,口语尽量流利。

1)自我介绍的主体内容

①姓名。介绍自己姓名时,发音一定要准(南方考生要多加注意)。

②年龄。年龄可以跟在姓名后带过(IamXXX,25yearsold)。

③原来的院校、专业。注意:一定要把原来学校的英文名称、专业的英文名称弄清楚(尤其是跨校、跨专业的学生)。

所属的公司、职位。注意:在职考生则应将自己公司、自己职位/职称的英文名称弄明白。

④性格、能力,爱好等。可以着重强调你的个性对你报考的专业有何积极的作用。如果报考的是学术性的专业,可以说自己细心(carefully,detail-oriented)、条理分明(logical)、踏实(steady)等;如果是研究性、应用性更强一点的专业,可以说自己负责(responsible)、可靠(dependable)、有效率(efficient)等。

⑤你对报考的专业有兴趣(beinterestedin/befascinatedwith/beobsessedwith„),可适当举出一些例子,如经常看相关的书籍、论文、文章、新闻等。在职考生可以强调知识教育对工作的影响:Inmywork,Ifinditnecessarytobroadenmyhorizonsincommunication.That’

swhyIlongforenteringyourprestigiousuniversity。

结束时可以用说:That’sallaboutme./Well,that’swhoIam.Thanksforyourattention。

3、未来规划——学习规划(研究生以后的方向),人生规划(短期、长期)

4、跨专业问题——老师通常会对跨专业的学生问这样一个问题:为什么会选择这个专业?不要前篇一律地回答只说“我对这个专业感兴趣”,可以把每个人都会谈到的原因简要地罗列一下,对具有自己特色的原因则可大谈特谈,详细地阐述自己的观点,让老师印象深刻。

5、专业知识——在英语口试中(非英语专业),如果老师提问专业问题,通常不会指望你能进行流利的、专业性强的阐述;但是一些专业术语的英文说法还是有必要了解一下的。

6、提出问题——在面试快结束的时候,一般老师都会问,你有没有什么要问的(Doyouhaveanyquestionstoask?)。一般不适合说“Idon’thaveanyquestion。”可以问考官一两个你关心的问题。

小提示:目前本科生就业市场竞争激烈,就业主体是研究生,在如今考研竞争日渐激烈的情况下,我们想要不在考研大军中变成分母,我们需要:早开始+好计划+正确的复习思路+好的辅导班(如果经济条件允许的情况下)。2017考研开始准备复习啦,早起的鸟儿有虫吃,一分耕耘一分收获。加油!

英语考试内容

Unit 1 Die and Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

模具和模具材料及热处理

1.1.1 Steels

Steels (first made in China and Japan around 600-800 A.C.) are generally divided into

the categories of carbon steels and alloy steels (including tool steels).

钢 (第一次在中国和日本各地取得 600-800 交流),通常分为碳钢的类别及合金 (包括工具

钢) 的钢。

Carbon Steels 碳钢

Carbon steels are used extensively in tool construction. Carbon steels are those steels

which only contain iron and carbon, and small amounts of other alloying elements. Carbon steels

are the most common and least expensive type of steels used for tools.

碳钢工具建设中广泛使用。碳钢是那些只含有铁、 碳和少量的其他合金元素的钢。碳钢是最

常见和最便宜的工具用钢的类型。

The three principal types of carbon steels used for tooling are low carbon, medium carbon

and high carbon steels. Low carbon steel contains between o.o5% and o.25% carbon. Medium

carbon steel contains between o.25% and 0.60% carbon. High carbon steels contains between

o.60% and 1.70% carbon.

用于模具的碳钢的三种主要类型是低碳、 中碳和高碳钢。低碳钢包含 o.o5%和 o.25%

的碳之间。中碳钢包含 o.25%和 0.60%碳之间。高碳钢包含 o.60%和 1.70%碳之间。

As the carbon content is increased in carbon steel, the strength, toughness, and hardness also

increase when the metal is heat treated.

随着碳含量碳钢中的增加,强度、 韧性及硬度也增加当金属热处理。

Low carbon steels are soft, tough steels that are easily machined and welded. Due to

their low carbon content, these steels can’t be hardened except by case hardening. Low carbon

steels are well suited for the following applications: tool bodies, handles, die shoes and similar

situations where strength and wear resistance aren’t required.

低碳钢是软、 强硬的钢,是轻松机械加工和焊接。由于其低的碳含量,这些钢不能由硬化硬

化除外。低碳钢非常适合以下应用程序: 工具机构、 手柄、 鞋模和强度和耐磨性不是必需

的类似情况。

Medium carbon steels are used where greater strength and toughness are required. Since

medium carbon steels have higher content, they can be heated to make parts such as studs, pins,

axles, nuts. steels in this group are more expensive as well as more difficult to machine and weld

than low carbon steels.

更大的强度和韧性都需要使用中碳钢钢。由于钢中碳含量更高,他们可加热,使螺柱、 针

脚、 车轴、 螺母等零件。在此组中的钢是更昂贵,以及更难机和焊接比低炭钢。

High carbon steels are the most hardenable type of carbon steel and are used frequently for

parts where resistance is an important factor. Other applications where high carbon steels are

well suited include drill bushings, locators and wear pads. Since the carbon content of these steels

if so high, parts made from high carbon steel are normally difficult to machine and weld.

高炭钢是最最可淬硬的碳钢类型和常用部件阻力在哪里的一个重要因素。高碳钢在哪里适合

其他应用程序包括钻轴套,定位器和戴上护垫。自这些钢的碳含量如此之高,如果从高炭钢

制造的部件很机和焊缝通常难。

Alloy Steels合金钢

Alloy steels are basically carbon steels with additional elements added to alter the

characteristics and bring about a predictable change in the mechanical properties of the alloyed

metal. Alloy steels are not normally used for most tools due to their increased cost, but some

have found favor for special applications. The alloying elements used most often in steels are

manganese, nickel, molybdenum and chromium.

合金钢基本上是碳钢与添加来改变特征和带来的合金金属的力学性能可预测变化的附加元

素。合金钢通常不用于大多数工具由于其增加的成本,但在一些特殊应用发现青睐。在钢中

最常使用的合金元素有锰、 镍、 钼和铬。

Another type of alloy steel frequently used for tooling applications is stainless steel.

Stainless steel is a term used to describe high chromium and nickel-chromium steels. these steels

are used for tools which must resist high temperature and corrosive atmosphere.

Some high chromium steels can be hardened by heat treatment and are used where resistance

to wear, abrasion and corrosion are required.

合金钢经常用于模具的应用程序的另一种类型是不锈钢。不锈钢是一个术语,用于描述高的

铬和镍-铬钢。这些钢用于必须抵抗高温和腐蚀性大气的工具。一些高铬钢可以通过热处理硬

化和用于耐磨性、 磨损和腐蚀是必需。

Typical applications where a hardenable stain-less steel is sometimes preferred are plastic

injection molds: here the high chromium content allows the steel to be highly polished and

prevents deterioration of the cavity from heat and corrosion.

可淬硬的不锈钢钢有时是首选的典型应用是注塑模具: 这里高铬含量允许进行高度抛光的

钢,并防止因热和腐蚀腔的恶化。

1.1.2 Selection of Typical Mold Steels典型模具钢的选择

The processes developed for molding plastic and the different processing properties of

the plastics lead to different loads, which must be taken into consideration not only in the design

but also in the selection of the materials required for molds.

流程制定成型塑料和塑料部件的不同加工性能导致不同的负荷,必须考虑到不仅在设计中所

需的模具材料的选用。

Steel has the ideal qualifications, because its properties can be modified by alloying elements,

special production processes, and heat treatment, and it can be adjusted to various requirements.

钢具有理想的资格,因为合金化元素、 特殊的生产过程和热处理,可以修改其属性,它

可以被调整到的各种要求。

The most important requirements for the mold steels are:

high compressive strength expected even at high temperature

wear resistance

Great toughness

Corrosion resistance and good thermal conductivity

模具钢的最重要要求是: 即使在高温耐韧性大腐蚀耐磨性和导热性好预期的抗压强度高

Also, the mold maker expects the following properties:

此外,模具制造商期望以下属性:

good machine ability好的机器能力

good hobbing capabilities (where required) 良好的挤压能力

dimensional stability during heat treatment在热处理尺寸稳定性

good polishing properties良好的抛光性能

surface texturing without difficulties(where required)

表面纹理没有困难(必需)

Finally, the mold steel should be readily available, and should be have a requirement that

demands’ standardization of sizes and universally suitable types of steels.

最后,模具钢应随时可用,并应该是有要求的规模和普遍适合类型的钢,他们要求的标

准化。

Considering the various stresses to which the mold material is subjected, it is understandable

that not all conditions can be met with one grade of steel.

The experience of many years and the close cooperation between steel producers and

consumers have led to the development of mold steels that can be divided into the following

groups: nitriding steels, case-hardened steels, pre-hardening steels, fully hardening steels,

corrosion-resistant steels, garaging steels and hard metal alloys.

考虑到模具材料经受的各种应力,这是可以理解,并非所有的条件可以得到满足的一个等

级的钢。多年的经验和钢铁生产商和消费者之间的密切合作,导致模具钢的发展可分为以下

几组:氮化钢,渗碳钢,预硬化钢,完全硬化钢,耐腐蚀,耐热钢,马氏体时效钢,硬质金

属合金。

1.1.3 Heat Treatment of Die and Mold Materials模具的热处理

Many of the roughcast or products made in the workshop can not be used until they

are heat-treated. Heat treatment can also be done on many of the nonferrous metals such as

aluminum, copper and brass. The way of heat treatment of metal parts include hardening,

tempering, annealing, normalizing, spheroidizing, stress relieving and case hardening.

许多毛坯或在车间制成的产品不能使用直到他们热处理。也可以对许多铝、 铜和铜等有色金

属热处理。金属零件热处理的方法包括硬化、 回火、 退火、 正火、 球化、 应力和硬化。 Hardening硬化

Hardening is a process of heating a piece of steel to a temperature within or above its

critical range and then cooling it rapidly to increase its hardness and tensile strength, to reduce its

ductility, and to obtain a fine grain structure.

As steel is heated, a physical and chemical change takes place between the iron and carbon.

The critical point, or critical temperature, is the point at which the steel has the most desirable

characteristics.

硬化是加热一块钢到或超过其关键性范围内的温度和它迅速以提高其硬度和拉伸强度,

以降低其延展性,并获取一个细粒结构,然后冷却的过程。当钢加热时,物理和化学的变化

铁和碳之间发生。临界点或者临界温度是钢在最理想的特性的点。

When steel reaches this temperature( some-where between 1400°F and 1600°F ) the change

is ideal to make for hard, strong materials if it is cooled quickly. If the metal cools slowly, it changes

back to its original state. By plunging the hot metal into water, oil or brine( quenching), the

desirable characteristics are retained. The metal is very hard and less ductile than before.

当钢达到这一温度 (约-where 1400 ° F 至 1600年 ° F) 变化是理想,使硬、 强材料,

如果它迅速冷却。如果金属冷却缓慢,它更改回其原始状态。由热金属陷入水、 油或盐水 (淬

火),保留理想的特性。这种金属是很难和较前的韧性。

Tempering 回火

Steel that has been hardened by rapid quenching is brittle and not suitable for most

uses. By tempering, the hardness and brittle-ness may be reduced to the desired point for service

conditions. Tempering is done by reheating the metal to low or moderate temperature, followed

by quenching, or by cooling in air. As the metal is heated for tempering, it changes in color. These

colors are called temper colors. You can watch these colors to know when the correct heat is

reached.

已经硬化迅速冷却的钢是脆性和不适合大多数用途。由回火,硬度和脆性岬都可能沦为服务

条件所需的点。回火是通过加热到低或中度的温度,然后由淬火或冷却空气中金属。当金属

加热的回火时,它更改颜色。这些颜色被称为脾气的颜色。你可以看到这些颜色要知道何时

达到正确的热。

Annealing退火

The major purpose of annealing is to soften hard steel so that it may be machined or

cold worked. The metal is heated above the critical temperature and cooled slowly. The most

common method is to place the steel in the furnace and heat it thoroughly. Then turn off the

furnace, allowing the metal to cool slowly. Another method is to pack the metal in clay, heat it to

the critical temperature, remove it from the furnace and allow it to cool slowly.

退火的主要目的是软化硬钢,使其可加工或冷工作。这种金属是临界温度以上加热和冷却较

慢。最常见的方法是在炉中放置钢和彻底加热。然后关闭炉、 允许的金属来慢慢冷却。另一

种方法是粘土中装金属、 加热到临界温度、 从炉中删除,使它慢慢冷却。

Normalizing正火

Normalizing involves heating the material to temperature of about 55-100°C above the

critical range and cooling in still air. This is about 55°C over the regular hardening temperature.

规范涉及加热 55-100 ° C 以上临界范围和冷却中仍然空气的温度约为材料。这是常规淬火

温度过高约 55 ° C。

The purpose of normalizing is usually to refine grain structures that have been coarsened in

forging. With most of the medium-carbon forging steels, alloy, normalizing is highly recommended

after forging and before machining to produce more homogeneous structures, and in most cases,

improved machinability.

High-alloy air-hardened steels are never normalized, since to do so would cause them to

harden and defeat the primary purpose.

正火的目的是通常是细化晶粒粗大化的结构,已在锻造。随着大部分的介质 - 碳锻造钢,

合金钢,正火强烈建议锻造后加工前,以产生更均匀的结构,并且在大多数情况下,改进的

可加工性。

高合金空气硬化钢从来没有正常化,因为这样做会导致硬化和失败的主要目的。

Spheroidizing球状化退火

Spheroidizing is a form of annealing which, in the process of heating and cooling steel, produces

a rounded or globular form of carbide — the hard constituent in steel.

Steels are normally spheroidized to improve machinability. This is accomplished by heating to

a temperature of 749-760°C for carbon steels and higher for many alloy tool steels, holding at heat

one to four hours, and cooling slowly in furnace.

是球化退火的加热和冷却钢,过程中产生的硬质合金圆角或球状的窗体的窗体 — — 中

钢硬成分。钢都正常球化改善加工性能。这是完成对碳钢 749 760 ° C 的温度下加热和高

许多合金工具钢、 举行热一到四个小时,和在炉中慢慢冷却。

Stress relieving去应力退火

This is a method of relieving the internal stresses set up in steel during forming, cold

working and cooling after welding or machining. It is the simplest heat treatment and is

accomplished merely by heating to 649-732°C followed by air or furnace cooling.

这是纾缓成形、 冷加工和焊接或加工后冷却过程钢中设置的内部压力的方法。这是最简单的

热处理,仅仅通过加热到 649 732 ° C 的空气或炉冷却后完成。

Case hardening表面硬化

Case hardening is a process of hardening the outer surface or case of ferrous metal. By

adding a small amount of carbon to the case of the low-carbon steel, it can be heat-treated to

make the case hard. At the same time, the center or core remains soft and ductile.

There are many methods of case hardening. In industry, molten cyanide is used.

Another industrial method is carburizing. This is a case-hardening procedure in chich carbon is

added to steel from the surface inward by one of the following methods: pack method, gas method

or liquid-salt method.

硬化是黑色金属的硬化的外表面或案例的过程。通过添加少量的碳低碳钢的情况,

它可以热处理,使案件硬。同时,中心或核心仍然是软和韧性。有许多方法的硬化。在行业

中,用熔融***。工业的另一个方法渗碳。这是硬化添加会签碳中的过程,从表面向内钢

通过以下方法之一: 包装方法、 气方法或液体盐。

Unit 5 Die Manufacturing Processes模具制造过程

5.1.1 An Introduction to Machining加工简介

从年度美元花,加工是最重要的生产流程。加工可以被定义为过程去除材料的从一个工件在形

式的芯片。术语金属切削时使用的材料是金属。

Most machining has very low set-up cost compared to forming, molding, and casting processes.

However, machining is much more expensive for high volumes. Machining is necessary where tight

tolerances on dimensions and finishes are required.

大多数加工已经非常低的设置成本而形成、成型、和铸造工艺。然而,加工高卷昂贵得多。加

工是必要的,严格的公差尺寸和完成是必需的。

The Machining section is divided into the following categories: drilling, turning, milling and

grinding.

加工部分分为以下几类:钻孔、车削、铣削、磨削。

5.1.2 Drilling钻孔

钻孔是容易最常见的加工过程。有人估计,75%的所有的金属切削材料去除来自钻孔作业。

钻孔涉及到创建圆形气缸孔,是正确的。这是完成大多数通常是通过使用一种麻花钻的

东西,大部分读者都已经见过的。在图1演示了一个截面的一个洞被削减了一个共同的麻花钻。

The chips must exit through the flutes to the outside of the tool. As can be seen in the fig4.1,

the cutting front is embedded within the work piece, making cooling difficult. The cutting area can

be flooded, coolant spray mist can be applied, or coolant can be delivered through the drill bit

shaft.

芯片必须退出通过长笛以外的工具。可以看到在图1,切割前是嵌入在工件,使冷却困难。

切割区域可以被淹没,冷却液喷雾雾可以应用,或者冷却剂可以经由钻头轴。

5.1.3 Turning车削

Turning is

performed on a machine called a lathe in which the tool is stationary and the part is rotated.

Lathes are designed solely for turning operations, so that precise control of the cutting results in

tight tolerances. The work piece is mounted on the chunk, which rotates relative to the stationary

tool. Turning refers to cutting as shown in Fig5.2

车削是另一个基本的加工过程。车削产品固体的革命可以操作的专门性质是紧紧地容忍。车削是在调用其中的工具是固定和旋转部件车床一台机器上执行的。车床设计只用于车削操作,使切割精确控制结果紧公差中。工件装载上的区块,其中固定刀具的相对旋转。指切割 Fig5.2 中所示的车削

5.1.4 Milling铣削

Milling is as fundamental as drilling among metal cutting processes. Milling is versatile for a basic machining process, but because the milling set up has so many degrees of freedom, milling is usually less accurate than turning or grinding unless especially rigid fixturing is implemented.

铣是作为基本金属切削过程中作为钻井。对于一个基本是多才多艺的铣削加工过程,但是因为铣设置有这么多自由度、铣削通常是不准确比转弯或磨除非特别是刚性夹具是实现。

For manual machining, milling is essential to fabricate any object that is not axially symmetric. There is a wide range of different milling machines, ranging from manual light-duty BridgeportsTM to huge CNC machines for milling parts hundreds of feet long. Below (Fig.5.3 ) is illustrated the process at the cutting area.

对于手工加工、铣削制造任何对象是至关重要的,不是轴对称。有许多不同的铣床,从手动轻型BridgeportsTM巨大数控机器铣削部件数百英尺长。下面(图5 3)说明了这个过程在切削区。

5.1.5 Grinding磨削

In grinding, an abrasive material rubs against the metal part and removes tiny pieces of material. The abrasive material is typically on the surface of a wheel or belt and abrades material in a way similar to sanding. On a microscopic scale, the chip formation in grinding is the same as that found in other machining processes. The abrasive action of grinding generates excessive heat so that flooding of the cutting area with fluid is necessary.

磨削是一个整理过程用于改善表面光洁度,擦伤硬质材料,并紧缩公差在平面和圆柱表面通过移除少量的材料。

在磨削、研磨材料摩擦的金属部分和删除小片的材料。这个研磨材料通常是表面上的轮或带和abrades材料在某种程度上类似于喷砂。在微观层面,形成的芯片在磨削是一样的,发现在其他加工专业

Unit 2 Basic Knowledge of Die模具的基本知识

2.1.1 Sheet-Metal Stamping in Com’parison with Other Metal Fabricating Processes

板料成形与其他金属加工工艺的比较

In today’s practical and cost-conscious world, sheet-metal parts have already replaced many expensive cast, forged, and machined products. The reason is obviously the relative cheapness of stamped, or otherwise mass-produced parts, as well as greater control of their technical and aesthetic parameters. That the world slowly turned away from heavy, ornate, and complicated shapes, and replaced them with functional, simple, and logical forms to enhanced this tendency. Remember old bathtub?

在注重实际而成本的今天,板料成形制作的零件已经取代了许多由铸造、锻造和机加工生产的昂贵的零件。这个原因是很明显的:以冲压或其他大规模生产方式加工的零件会相对便宜,而且制造过程中的技术和美学参数更加控制。这个世界渐渐地远离了笨重、华丽而复杂的形状,取而代之的是实用、简单而且合乎逻辑的零件。而这些更加剧了采用冲压这一技术的趋势。是否还记得老浴盆们?

They used to be cast and had ornamental legs. Today they are mostly made of coated sheet

metal, if not plastics. Manufacturing methods for picture frames, chandeliers, door and wall hardware, kitchen sinks, pots and pans, window frames, and doors were gradually replaced by more practical and less costly techniques.

这些浴盆过去式用铸造来制造出来的,具有装饰用的腿。今天,这些浴盆几乎都是由涂层钢板或塑料制造。画框、吊灯、门和墙的五金件、厨房水槽、壶和平底盘、窗框以及大门的制作方法已经被更加实用和低廉的技术渐渐取代。

But, sheet-metal stampings can also be used to imitate handmade ornamental designs of previous centuries. Such three-dimensional decorations can be stamped in a fraction of time the artist needed.

而且,板料加工技术也可以用来模仿以前的手工装饰设计。这种三维装饰可以在艺术家所需的一部分时间内冲压出来。

Metal extrusions, stampings, and forgings, frequently quite complex and elaborate , are used to replace handmade architectural elements. Metal tubing, metal spun products, forming, and drawn parts are often but cheaper substitutes of other, more expensive merchandise.

金属挤压、冲压和锻压,用来取代手工建筑元素非常复杂和繁琐。金属管成形、施压成形的零件,成形和拉深的工件经常是其他贵重金属商品的廉价替代品。

Metal stampings, probably the most versatile products of modern technology, are used to replace parts previously welded together from several components. A well-designed sheet-metal stamping can sometimes eliminate the need for riveting or other fastening processes .

金属冲压件,可能是现代技术中最多样化的零件,可以用来取代那些以前需要通过多个部件焊接在一起的零件。一个设计良好的钣金件有时可以取消铆接或其他紧固方式。

Stampings can be used to improve existing designs that often are costly and labor-intensive. 冲压可以用来改进目前的昂贵而需要人力密集劳动的设计。当产品制造成本削减时,即使产品已经改善,也可以被再进一步改善和创新,从而进一步减少成本。

The metal stamping die is an ideal tool that can produce large quantities of parts that are consistent in appearance, quality, and dimensional accuracy. It is a press tool capable of cutting the metal, bending it, drawing its shape into considerable depths, embossing, coining, finishing the edges, curling, and altering the shape and the outline of the metal part to suit the wildest imaginable design concepts.

冲压模具是一个理想的工具,它可以用来制作大量的零件,这些零件在外形、质量和尺寸精度上高度统一。冲压模具是一个压力工具,它能够切断、弯曲金属,将金属的形状拉深至相当大的深度,压印,光整边缘,卷边,另外,还能改变金属零件的形状或轮廓,从而可以适用于所能够想象的到的最复杂的设计概念。

The word “die” in itself means the complete press tool in its entirety, with all the punches, die buttons, ejectors, strippers, pads, and blocks, simply with all its components assembled together.

模具这个单词是指整个压力工具的所有部分,将这些部分简单的装配在一起。这些部件包括所有的凸模、凹模、弹射器、卸料版、垫板和底座。

When commenting on these little technical ingenuities, it is important to stress the role of designers of such products, both artistic and technical. Their thorough knowledge of the manufacturing field will definitely enhance not only the appearance, but the functionality, overall manufacturability, and cost of these parts.

当评价这些小巧的技术创作时,必须从艺术和技术上强调这些部件的设计者。设计者在制造领域广博的知识绝对可以增强产品的外观、功能、整体制造性和控制这些部件的成本。

Metal stamping die production output can be enormous, with huge quantities of high quality merchandise,as shown in Fig2.3 and Fig2.4.

金属冲压可以制造出大量各种各样的高质量的零件,这些零件如图2.3、2.4。

2.1.2 Grain of Material

Often, parts produced by various manufacturing methods can be redesigned to suit the sheet-metal mass production.

2.1.2 材料的纹理分布

通常而言,不同制造方式生产的零件都可以重新设计成适用于板料成形的大规模生产。

When designing such replacements, there are several aspects to be evaluated. The first and probably the most important is the grain of material. Sheet metal of every form, be it a strip or a sheet, displays a definite grain line. It is the direction along which the material was produced in the mill-rolling process。

当设计这种取代方式时,这里会有多个方面去考虑。第一个而且是最重要的可能是材料的纹理。每一种形式的板料,条料或板料,都会显示一条明显的纹理线。这就是材料在辊压成形过程中沿着那个方向。

In coils, the grain direction always runs lengthwise, parallel with the longer edge. The grain direction in sheets may vary, and designers must always make themselves familiar with it prior to planning a production run of any kind.

在卷料中,纹理方向经常沿着纵向,与较长边平行。板料上的纹理方向可能会变化,所以设计者必须使自己在设计任何一种生产过程之前熟悉这个变化。

In contrast, cast or forged parts display a different grain direction, and in sintered powder metal parts the grain is completely gone. For this reason, each of these manufacturing methods can be used to produce items for different applications.

铸造或锻造的零件会产生不同的纹理方向,而在粉末冶金的零件中纹理方向会完全消失,这些都是与板料成形截然不同之处。因为这种原因,这些制造方法中每一种方法都能被用于制作有不同用途的物品。

2.1.3 What constitutes suitability for die production?

When evaluating a part for die production, the most restrictive aspect to be considered is the cost of the tooling. To build a metal stamping die is a costly process, involving many people, many machines, and several technologies. For that reason, the demand for tooling must first be economically justified.

当评价一个使用模具制造的零件时,需要考虑最严格的方面是模具制造的成本。制造一个冲压模具是一个代价极大的过程,期中要涉及到诸多人力、物力和技术的使用。正是这个原因,对于工具的需求首先要求经济性的公正评价。

Unit 3 Plastic Part Manufacturability

塑料零件工艺性

The design of plastic parts is largely determined by its purpose, functionality, and appearance. Most plastic parts are made with injection molding. The molding process has its own unique features and limitations. Thus, the manufacturability of each part design must be

thoroughly considered for its economics, as well as its application and aesthetic expectation. To each mold designer, it is critical to acquire a basic understanding of the plastic part design.

塑料部件的设计主要取决于其目的、 功能和外观。大部分塑料部件有注塑成型。注射成型过程有其自己独特的功能和局限性。因此,每个零件设计的工艺性必须彻底考虑其经济学,以及其应用程序和审美期待。到每个模具设计器中,至关重要的是收购塑料部件设计的一个基本的了解。

1. Plastic Part Dimensional Accuracy塑料零件尺寸精度

• Plastic parts are molded under elevated temperature, their dimensional accuracy is affected

by accuracy of the mold and shrinkage of the plastic material, which is affected by the following factors:

• 塑料部件模压在高温下,其尺寸精度受模具的精度和收缩的塑料的材料,受到以下因

素的影响:

1) Each plastic material has a unique shrinkage rate, which

may further vary by its manufacturer, batch number,

and water and volatile contents.

每个塑料材料具有独特的收缩率,

可能会进一步随其制造商,批号,

和水和挥发性内容。

2) During the injection molding process, the change in the injection conditions such as

injection force, time, and temperature all directly affect its shrinkage. For example, plastic parts usually shrink less at a higher injection pressure.

在注射成型的过程,期间在注射条件下注入力量、 时间和温度的变化直接影响到其收缩。例如,塑料部件通常在较高的注射压力小于收缩。

3) The wall thickness and shape of plastic part also affects its shrinkage. For example, the

plastic part with a thin wall shrinks less.

壁厚和形状的塑料部分也会影响其收缩。例如,塑料部分有一个很薄的壁收缩更少。

4) The mold structure also directly affects plastic part’s shrinkage. A larger gate size leads to a small shrinkage. Thus it can be seen that the shrinkage of plastics is unstable, which shall inevitably influence the dimension precision of plastic parts. Considering this factor as well as other complications such as the draft, the flash on parting line and the abrasion of molding parts etc, it is unnecessary to select high dimension precision when designing plastic structural parts if not need be.

模具结构也直接影响塑料件的收缩。一个更大的门大小会导致一个小收缩。由此可见,收缩塑料是不稳定的,这将不可避免地影响尺寸精度的塑料部件。考虑到这个因素以及其他并发症如草案,flash在分型线和磨损的成型零件等等,都是不必要的,选择高尺寸精度在设计塑料结构部件如果不需要。

Recommend grades of molding part precision are shown in Table1-2. Aside from dimensional accuracy, the surface quality of plastic parts depends on whether there exist defects such as spots, wrinkles, porosity, dents, welding marks, and their surface luster and finishes. Defects occur during the injection process.

推荐等级的模具成型零件精密显示在表2。除了尺寸精度、表面质量的塑料部分取决于是否存在缺陷,如斑点,皱纹,孔隙度、凹陷、焊接标志,其表面光泽和完成。缺陷发生在注射过程。 Surface luster and finish relate to mold surface, wear, plastic material brand and quality, and injection molding conditions. The molding surface quality must be higher than the surface

requirement for the plastic parts. Transparent plastic parts typically require a very high surface finish, which is normally a Ra of 0.025um or better.

表面光泽和完成与模具表面磨损、塑性材料的品牌、质量、注射成型条件。成型表面质量必须高于表面要求塑料零件。透明塑料零件通常需要一个非常高的表面光洁度,这通常是一个Ra的0.025微米或更好。

2. Wall Thickness壁厚

Plastic parts require a reasonable thickness. It should not be too thin, as it needs to have sufficient strength for its application, fastening during its assembly, filling out its cavity during molding, and impact during ejection. It should not be too thick, for it increase the shrinkage, further varies its dimensions, prolongs the cooling time, and wastes the material. It may also porosity, shrinkage cavity, dent and warpage.

塑料零件需要一个合理的厚度。它不应该太薄,因为它需要有足够的力量为其应用程序,紧固在其组合,填写其腔在成型,和影响在弹射。它不应该太厚,因为它增加收缩,进一步改变其尺寸、延长冷却时间,浪费材料。它也可能孔隙度、缩孔、凹痕和翘曲。

The thickness decision needs to carefully strike a balance between economics, and part quality and strength, though it also depends on the material type, part size, and molding conditions. Thermoplastic materials are good for parts with a thin wall, which usually varies between 1.5~4mm, though it could be as thin as 0.6~0.9mm, or even 0.25mm at times. The thickness should be homogeneous all around the part, to avoid residual forces and defects, caused by uneven shrinkage during the solidification and cooling process.

决定需要仔细的厚度之间找到一个平衡点经济学,和部分质量和强度,尽管它还取决于材料类型、大小、和成型条件的一部分。热塑性材料有益于部分有一个很薄的壁,这通常介于1.5 ~ 4毫米,尽管它可能薄如0.6 ~ 0.9毫米,甚至有时0.25毫米。厚度应均匀各地的一部分,以避免残余部队和缺陷,造成不均匀收缩在凝固和公司

3. Ribs筋板

Ribs are often used to enhance the plastic part strength and stiffness without a thicker wall. Ribs could also improve material flow conditions during molding.

筋板通常用于增强的塑料部件强度和刚度不厚的墙。排骨,也可以在成型过程上提高材料的流动条件。

Fig1-3a shows a thick and uneven wall design. Fig1-3b shows a wall design of even thickness. It saves material and enhances its strength and stiffness, while avoiding air bubbles, shrinkage cavities, dents and warpages. Rib dimensions are shown in fig.1-4, their thickness is usually smaller than the wall thickness.

图1-3a示出了厚且不均匀的墙壁设计。图1-3b显示了墙的设计,厚度均匀。它节省材料,提高其强度和刚度,同时避免气泡,缩孔,凹陷和翘曲。肋板的尺寸示于图1-4,它们的厚度通常小于壁的厚度。

4. Support surface支撑表面

When plastic parts need to have a support surface, it is not desirable to use the whole part bottom surface as the support. Fig1-7 shows the bottom surface becomes uneven, when the plastic part deforms a bit. A frame, three or four bottom feet are usually a better support surface.

当塑料部件需要有一个支承表面,它是不希望使用作为支撑的整个部分的底表面。图1 - 图7示出的底表面变得不均匀,当把塑料部分有点变形。一帧,三个或四个底脚通常是更好的支撑面。

5. Draft

Draft is used to protect plastic part surface from scratch during ejection, it is a draft reserved along

with the ejection direction. The draft depends on the material shrinkage, part shape, wall thickness, and ejection location.

草案从头喷射期间用于保护塑料部件表面,它是一个与喷射方向一起保留的草案。该草案取决于材料的收缩,零件形状,壁厚,和喷射位置。

For inner holes on a plastic part, the smaller end of core is used as reference. Its draft is shown along with the rising direction. For exterior of a plastic part design, the larger end of cavity is used as reference. Draft is dimensioned along with the reducing direction. Please refer to Table1-3 for various draft designs. A typical draft ranges between 30’~1’30

塑料零件的内孔,较小的一端的核心是作为参考。它的草案是一起显示上升方向。对于外部的塑料零件设计,较大的一端腔作为参考。草案的还原方向的尺寸随着。各种设计草图,请参阅表3。一个典型的草案之间30〜130

6. Hole Design孔设计

Holes may exist on a plastic part, including through holes, blind holes, screwed holes, and irregular shaped holes. In principle, holes should be as simple as possible, a complex hole increases the difficulty of mold making; A sufficient gap should be reserved between holes of between a hole and a wall. The diameter of a hole also relates to its depth . When the distance between two holes or from the hole to the edge is smaller than the one specified, please modify the pattern design.

孔可能存在的塑料部分,包括通过孔、 盲孔、 螺纹孔,与孔不规则形。原则上,孔应尽可能简单、 复杂孔增加的模具制作 ; 困难孔和墙之间的孔之间应预留足够的差距。孔直径也涉及其深度。当两个孔之间或从孔与边缘的距离小于指定的时请修改图案设计。

7. Screw螺旋;螺钉

Screws on the plastic part can be formed during the injection process. They may be created by machining after the injection process. For a plastic part which is subject to frequent assembly and disassembly, the part may be inserted with a metal screw.

在注射过程中,可以形成的塑料部分上的螺丝。可以创建它们通过机械加工后的注射过程。对于塑料部分,它是受到频繁的组装和拆卸,该部分可被插入与金属螺丝。

For design of screws on a plastic part, the following principles are followed:

设计的塑料零件上的螺钉,遵循下列原则:

1) The diameter of injected external screws should not be smaller than 4mm. Internal screws

should not be smaller than 2mm. length of fit should be reduced to less than 1.5~2.0 times of the screw diameter, in order to minimize the accumulative error on the screw pitch.

注入的外部螺钉的直径应不小于4mm。内部螺丝应不小于2mm。配合长度应减少到小于螺杆直径的1.5〜2.0倍,以尽量减少对螺杆螺距的累积误差。

2) There should be an area larger than 0.5mm without

screw on its end, to facilitate manufacturing, avoid burr,

and effect guidance at use, as shown in Fig1-12.

应该有一个面积大于0.5mm无

在其端部螺丝,便于制造,避免毛刺,

和效果指导在使用中,如在图1-12中所示。

3) For a plastic part which has two screws located along the same axis, the pitch and

tightening direction should be the same. It simples mold structure design and the part production.

对于具有两个螺钉位于沿同一轴线的塑料部分,俯仰和收紧方向应该是相同的。它简单模具的结构设计和零件生产。

8. Gear齿轮

The same material should be used for gears that match, to avoid problems caused by shrinkage. 相同的材料,应使用的齿轮相匹配,以避免因收缩而引起的问题。

Adopt the transition fit between the hole and shaft on a plastic gear.

9. Structure of inserts结构的刀片

Inserts are a metal part permanently inserted into a plastic part. They are used for various purposes. Some are used to enhance local strength, hardness, or wear of a plastic part. Some are used for electricity reasons, while others are used to improve the stability of its shape and dimensional precision. Thought most inserts are typically made of metal, other materials may also be used.

刀片有永久插入塑料部件的金属部分。它们被用于各种用途。一些用来加强局部强度,硬度,塑料零件的磨损。有些用于电力的原因,而另一些被用来改善它的形状和尺寸精度的稳定性。思想大部分插入通常是由金属制成的,以及其他的材料也可以使用。

10. Surface Marking表面标志

Marking of protrusions, depressions, or leather-like wrinkles may exist on a plastic part. Some are for functional requirement, while others are for decoration. Markings should be easy for molding, ejection and mold making. Usually the marking should be in parallel to the ejection direction. A side draft must be considered to assure the wrinkle design on the side of the plastic part can be properly ejected.

标记的凸部,凹部,或皮革状的皱纹的标记可能存在上的塑料部分。有些是功能性的要求,而有些则是为了装饰。标志应该很容易成型,脱模和模具制造。一般标记应当是平行的喷射方向。必须考虑的A侧(草案),以保证的塑料部分的侧面上的褶皱设计可以适当地喷出。

3.2 Basic Mold Structure基本模具结构

1. Two-plate Mold两板模具

Two-plate mold are molds whose sprue, runners, gates, and cavities are all on the same side of the mold, divided by the parting line into moving half and fixed half. Their features are: ①simple structure, easy to operate, and satisfactory to have the plastic part to drop off freely.

②minimal operational problems, long lifespan, and shortened molding cycle. ③inexpensive mold cost. ④easier to choose gate shape and location. ⑤other than direct gate, gate location is limited to the side of the plastic part, with certain exceptions. ⑥after molding, there is a need to cut off the gate from the part.

双板模具是模具的浇口,亚,季军,门,腔体都在同一侧的模具的分型线的一半,固定移动一半,分。他们的特点是:①结构简单,操作方便,满意的有塑料部分自由落。

②最低的运营问题,寿命长,并缩短成型周期。 ③廉价的模具成本。 ④更容易地选择浇口的形状和位置。 ⑤其他比直接浇口,浇口位置是有限的塑料部分的一侧,有某些例外。 ⑥成型后,有必要从部分切断栅极。

2. Three-plate Mold三板模

Three-plate mold is a mold which has a runner plate in between moving half and fixed half. The runner exists between the runner plate and the fixed half. The cavity is located in between the runner plate and moving half of the mold. Pin-point gates typically locate at the middle of the plastic part, away from its edge, satisfying the aesthetic requirement and eliminating the process for cutting off the gates.

三板模具是模具,其中有一个热流道板在半固定半之间移动。横浇道之间存在的流道板和固

定半。位于该腔体之间的流道板和移动模具的一半。针点门通常定位在中间的塑料部分,远离它的边缘,满足美学要求和消除的方法,切断浇口。

A three-plate mold has the following features: ①its gates can be located at the middle of the plastic part. ②it allows pin-point gates. ③it may eliminate cutting off the gate manually, when pin-point gates or submarine gates are used. ④it has to take out both the part and the runner respectively. ⑤the injection molding machine should have sufficient mold opening distance. ⑥it has a complex structure, more problematic and less durable. ⑦it carries a higher mold cost. ⑧ it has a long molding cycle.

三板模具具有以下特点:①它的门可以位于中间的塑料部分。 ②它允许针点浇口。 ③它可以消除手动切断门,使用针点浇口或潜入式浇口。 ④分别采取部分和亚军。⑤的注塑机,应该有足够的开模距离。 ⑥它具有复杂的结构,更成问题,耐用性较差。 ⑦它承载着较高的模具成本。 ⑧它有很长的成型周期。

3.3 Parting Line分型线

Parting line is a reference plane in a mold. It significantly affects the quality of injection-molded plastic parts, mold’s manufacturability, molding operation efficiency and so on. Therefore selecting the parting line is a critical decision in the mold design.

分型线是在模具中的一个参考平面。它显着影响注塑成型塑料件,模具的可制造性,模塑操作效率等的质量。因此选择在模具设计,分模线是一个重要的决定。

The principles for deciding on the parting line are: 决定分模线的原则是:

1) Assure the plastic part’s appearance. Fig.1-53a (right) shows the parting plane may easily lead

to welding marks or overflow. It is hard clean the mold. Fig.1-53b (left) shows a better choice of the parting plane. It helps to form smooth corners on the plastic part.

保证塑料部件的外观。图1-53A(右)分型面容易导致熔接痕或溢出。这是很难清洁模具。图1-53b的(左)的分模面,示出了更好的选择。它可以帮助形成光滑的弯道上的塑料部分。

2) Facilitate venting. The end of material flow line is a good

candidate for venting. Fig.1-54 shows a shape like caecum at the spot A, which is difficult for venting and thus difficult to fill out the cavity, leading to air bubbles. The one on the left can easily vent the air, and thus a better design.

促进通风。最终的的物质流线是一个很好的候选人,通风。图54示出了在点A,这是难以泄放和因此难以填充空腔,导致气泡的形状像盲肠。一个在左边可以很容易地发泄在空气中,从而更好的设计。

2) Keep the plastic part on the side of moving half of its mold. In general, while opening the mold,

it is easier to eject the part, if it stays with the moving half which has an ejection mechanism. Fig.1-55 shows the fastening force exerted by the plastic part shrinkage on the core is greater than the one on the cavity; thus as shown in figure on the right, the plastic part remains on the core and with the core, separate from the moving half. Typically it is difficult to eject the plastic part. The left figure shows the plastic part fastening the core is left with the moving half and is ejected with an ejection mechanism.

查看移动其模具的一半的侧上的塑料部分。在一般情况下,当打开模具时,它是更容易喷射的部分,如果它保持与所述移动的具有排出机构的这一半。图55示出的核心上的塑料部分收缩所施加的紧固力大于上的空腔中的一个,因此在图右侧所示,塑料部分仍然上的核心和核心,单独从移动的一半。通常情况下,它是难以喷射的塑料部分。左边的图显示了紧固芯的塑料部分与所述移动半离开,并与一个喷射机制被喷射。

4)Assure plastic part accuracy. Fig.1-56 is a partial injection

mold for making a plastic gear. Its diameters d and D must be concentric. The right figure shows they are accomplished separately with the fixed and the moving half. It is hard to assure the concentricity while closing the mold. The left figure shows both the diameters d and D are on the moving half, easily satisfy the concentricity requirement.

保证塑料零件的精度。图56是局部注射

模具,用于制造塑料齿轮。它的直径d和D必须是同心的。右边的图显示了它们与固定和移动半分开完成。关闭模具的同时,这是很难保证同心度。左边的图显示了两个的直径d和D上的移动的一半,很容易满足的同心度的要求。

5)Easy to machining. Fig. 1-57 shows the examples of a slanted parting line and a curved parting line. The left figure shows it requires only one slanted or curved surface to match the mold plate. Therefore, it is a better design. The right figure shows a design which requires matching multiple surfaces, creating more technical challenge, while wasting time and effort.

易于加工。图。 1-57示出的实施例的倾斜分型线和弯曲的分型线。左边的图显示了它要求只有一个倾斜的或弯曲的表面,从而匹配模具板。因此,这是一个更好的设计。右边的图显示了一个设计,需要匹配多个表面,创造更多的技术挑战,而浪费时间和精力。

3.4 Feeding System进料系统

Feeding system design is a critical effort in mold design. It significantly affects the appearance, physical properties, dimensional accuracy, and molding cycle time of a plastic part. A feeding system consists of sprue, runners and gates.

进料系统的设计是一个关键的努力,在模具设计。它显着影响外观,物理性质,尺寸精度,及塑料零件成型周期时间。喂食系统由浇口,流道和浇口。

Unit4 Press Process and Die Design冲压工艺及模具设计

 4.1.1 Abstract提要,摘要。

Modern continuous rolling mills produce large quantities of thin sheet metal at low cost. A substantial fraction of all metal are produced as thin hot-rolled strip or cold-rolled sheet; this is then formed in secondary processes into automobiles, domestic appliances, building products, aircraft, food and drink cans and a host of other familiar products.

现代连续轧机产生大量的薄金属片,以较低的成本。相当部分的所有金属薄热轧带钢冷轧薄板生产,这便形成了二次加工到汽车,家用电器,建筑产品,飞机,食品和饮料罐和主机熟悉的其他产品。 金属薄板部件具有的优点在于,该材料具有高的弹性模量和高的屈服强度,使生产的部件可以是刚性的,并具有良好的强度 - 重量比。大量使用的技术,以使金属板件。

 Common forming processes:常见的形成过程:

Blanking and piercing. As sheet is usually delivered in large coils, the first operation is to cut the blanks that will be fed into the presses; subsequently there may be further blanking to trim off excess material and pierce holes. The basic cutting process is shown in Fig.3.1.

冲裁和冲孔。片材通常是在大线圈,交付的第一个操作是减少的空白将被送入印刷机,随后有可能进一步消隐修剪掉多余的材料和刺穿的孔。图3.1中所示的基本的切割工艺。 详细研究时,可以看出,消隐塑性剪切和断裂,是一个复杂的过程,在边缘处的材料是可

能成为局部硬化。在后续操作中,这些影响可能会造成困难。

Bending. The simplest forming process is making a straight line bend as shown in Fig.3.2. Plastic deformation occurs only in the bend region and the material away from the bend is not deformed. If the material lacks ductility, cracking may appear on the outside bend surface, but the greatest difficulty is usually to obtain an accurate and repeatable bend angle. Elastic springback is appreciable.

弯曲。最简单的成形过程进行直线弯曲,如在图3.2所示。塑性变形只发生在弯曲区域和远离弯曲的材料是不变形的。如果材料缺乏延展性,开裂可能出现外面的弯曲表面上,但最大的困难是通常以获得精确和可重复的弯曲角度。弹性回弹是相当可观的。

Stamping or draw die forming. The part shown in Fig.3.3 is formed by stretching over a punch of more complicated shape in a draw die. This consists of a punch, and draw ring and blank-holder assembly, or binder. This process is widely used to form auto-body panels and a variety of appliance parts.

冲压或绘制模切成型。在图3.3中示出的部分上形成通过横跨的拉伸模的更复杂的形状的冲头。这包括了一拳,并绘制环压边组装,或粘结剂。此过程被广泛使用,以形成汽车车身面板和各种家电零件。

Much of the outer flange is trimmed off after forming so that it is not a highly efficient process, but with well-designed tooling, vast quantities of parts can be made quickly and with good dimensional control. Die design requires the combination of skill and extensive computer-aided engineering systems, but for the purpose of conceptual design and problem solving, the complicated deformation system can be broken down into basic elements that are readily analyzed.

大部分的外凸缘的修剪掉之后形成,以便它是不是一个高效的过程,但使用精心设计的工具,大量的零件,可以快速并具有良好的尺寸控制。模具设计需要的技能和广泛的计算机辅助工程系统的组合,但复杂的变形系统的概念设计和解决问题为目的,可以分解为基本元素,很容易分析。

Deep drawing. In stamping, most of the final part is formed by stretching over the punch although some material around the sides may have been drawn inwards from the flange. As there is a limit to the stretching that is possible before tearing, stamped parts are typically shallow. To form deeper parts, much more material must be drawn inwards to form the sides and such a process is termed deep drawing. Forming a simple cylindrical cup is shown in Fig.3.4.

深拉伸。在冲压过程中,大部分的最后一部分是通过拉伸在冲头,虽然一些材料周围的两侧可能已绘制从凸缘向内形成。由于有限制,这是可能的前撕裂拉伸,冲压件通常是浅。为了形成较深部位,等等的材料,必须向内绘制形成的两侧,并这样一个过程被称为深拉深。形成一个简单的圆柱形杯在图3.4所示。

To prevent the flange from buckling, a blank-holder is used and the clamping force will be of the same order as the punch force. Lubrication is important as the sheet must slide between the die and the blank-holder. Stretching over the punch is small and most of the deformation is in the flange; as this occurs under compressive stresses, large strains are possible and it is possible to draw a cup whose height is equal to or possibly a little than the cup diameter.

为了防止凸缘从屈曲,一个空白的保持器是用来作为冲头力的夹紧力将是相同的顺序。润滑是重要的,因为片材必须在模具和坯料保持器之间滑动。横跨冲头是小的,大多数的变形是在凸缘的,因为这发生在压缩应力下,大的应变是可能的,它可以得出一个杯子,其高度等于或比杯直径可能有点。

4.1.2 Piercing and Blanking Die Design冲孔和冲裁模设计

The cutting of metal between die components is a shear process in which metal is stressed in shear between two cutting edges to the point of fracture, or beyond its ultimate strength. The metal is subjected to both tensile and compressive stresses. Stretching beyond the elastic limit occurs, then plastic deformation, reduction in area, and finally, fracturing starts through cleavage planes in the reduced area and becomes complete.

模具部件之间的金属的切削是剪切过程,在这过程中,金属被强调的两个切削刃之间的剪切断裂点,或超出其极限强度。金属进行拉伸和压缩应力。伸展超过弹性极限时,则塑性变形,面积的减少,最后,压裂开始通过解理面在减小的面积,成为完整的。

As the punch descends upon the metal the pressure first causes a plastic deformation to take place. The metal is highly stressed adjacent to punch-and-die edges, and fractures start on both sides of the sheet as the deformation continues.

由于冲头下降时的金属的压力首先导致的塑性变形发生。的金属是高度强调相邻的冲头和模具的边缘,和裂缝开始在片材的两侧上,随着变形的继续。

When the ultimate strength of the material is reached, the fracture progress, and, if the clearance is correct and both edges are of equal sharpness; the fractures meet at the center of the sheet. The amount of clearance, which plays an important part in die design, depends on the hardness of the material.

当达到的最终材料的强度,断裂进展,并且,如果该间隙是正确的,这两个边缘相等锐度;骨折满足于在片材的中心。的间隙量,它起着在模具设计中的一个重要组成部分,依赖于该材料的硬度。

For steel it should be 5% to 8% of the stock thickness per side. If improper clearance is used, the fractures will not meet, and instead fractures must cross the entire sheet thickness, using more power.

对于钢铁,它应该是5%至8%的股票厚度每边。如果使用不当间隙,骨折不符合,而不是骨折必须穿越整个板材厚度,使用更多的权力。

In blanking, the piece is cut off from the sheet, and it becomes a finished part. In piercing, the cutout portion is scrap which gets disposed off while the product part travels on through the remainder of the die (Fig. 3.5).

在消隐,这首曲子是切断从工作表中,就变成了成品的一部分。穿孔,切口部是废料得到处置,而产品的一部分上行驶通过模具的其余部分(图3.5)。

Piercing Die. A complete press tool, consisting of a pair of mating members for producing stamped parts, including all supporting and actuating elements of the tool, is a die. Fig.3.6 presents the common components of a simple die.

冲孔模。一个完整的冲压工具,包括一对配对部件的制造的冲压件,包括所有的支撑和致动元件的工具,是一个模具。图3.6给出了一个简单的模具的通用组件。

A single-station piercing die as an example of a complete press tool for cutting a hole in work material at one stroke is depicted as follows: the guide pins, or posts, are mounted in the lower shoe. The upper shoe contains bushings which slide on the guide pins. The assembly of lower and

单站冲孔模示凿个洞一举工作材料的完整新闻工具的一个示例是,如下所示: 指南针脚或职位,装入,较低的鞋。上部的鞋包含衬套的滑动导轨销上。大会的上限和下限鞋与导轨销和衬套是一模套。装载到上部的鞋模座持有冲床的指导是在汽提装置插入套管。

A sleeve, or quill, encloses one punch to prevent its buckling under pressure from the ram of the press. After penetration of the work material, the punch enters the die bushings for a slight

distance. The female member consists of two die bushings inserted in the die block. Since this press tool punches holes to the diameters required, the diameters of the die bushings are larger than that of the punch by the amount of clearance.

一套或套筒,包围一巴掌,以防止其屈曲的新闻界 ram 的压力下。打孔后的工作材料的渗透,进入轻微距离模衬套。女性成员包括模具块中插入两个模衬套。因为此新闻工具打孔到到所需的直径的比的间隙量由冲床大模衬套的直径。

Since the work material stock or workpiece can cling to a punch on the upsroke, it may be necessary to strip the material from the punch. A workpiece to be pierced is commonly held and located in a nest composed of flat plates shaped to encircle the outside part contours. Stock is positioned in dies by pins, blocks, or other types of stops for locating before the down-stroke of the ram.

由于工作材料的库存或工件可以保鲜上upsroke的冲头,它可能是必要剥离从冲头的材料。普遍持有的工件被刺穿,坐落在巢组成的平板形包围以外的部分轮廓。库存中被定位在模具由标签,块,或其他类型的停止定位之前的向下冲程的公羊。

Blanking Die. A simple blanking die(Fig.3.7) is the same as the piercing die except that a die replaces the die bushings and the piercing punch is replaced by a blanking punch. A stock stop is incorporated instead of nest plates. It is a drop-through stripper is mounted on the lower shoe; it travels upward in stripping the stock from the punch fastened to the lower shoe. Stripper bolts hold and guide the stripper in its travel.

冲裁模。一个简单的冲模(图3.7)是相同的冲孔模的模具,只是替换模具衬套和冲孔冲头所取代的消隐的杵。 A股停止注册成立,而不是巢板。这是一个下拉通过汽提器是安装在下部的鞋,它向上行进在从冲头紧固到下部鞋剥离股票。卸料螺钉把握和引导在其行程中剥离。

On the upstroke of the ram, the upper end of the knockout rod strikes an arm on the press frame, which forces the lower end of the rod downward, through the die, and ejects the finished blank from the die cavity. A stop collar retains the rods and limits their travel.

在上行冲程的公羊,高端的基因敲除棒打击手臂在机架上,使杆的下端向下,通过模具,并将成品的死腔。停止衣领保留杆和限制了他们的旅行。

3.1.3 Bending Die Design弯曲模设计

Bending along a straight line is the most common of all sheet forming process; it can be done in various ways such as forming along the complete bend in a die, or by folding or flanging in special machines, or sliding the sheet over a radius in a die.

沿一条直线的弯曲是最常见的,所有的片材形成工序,它可以以不同的方式,如在模具中的完整的弯曲沿形成完成,或通过折叠或翻折在特殊的机器,或滑动片半径超过一个死了。 Bend radius. Minimum bend radius vary for different metals; generally, annealed metals can be bend to a radius equal to the thickness of metal without cracking or weakening.

弯曲半径。最小弯曲半径变化为不同的金属,一般的,退火的金属可以被弯曲的金属的厚度的半径等于不开裂或削弱的情况下。

Bending pressure. Bending pressure can be determined using the following empirical relationship: 弯曲的压力。可以使用下面的经验关系确定弯曲压力:

F= 133LSt²/W

F — bending force required, tons (MPa)

F - 弯曲力(MPA)

L — length of bend, in (mm) L - 弯曲长度(毫米)

S — ultimate tensile strength, ton/in² (Pa/mm²)

S - 极限拉伸强度,吨/平方英寸(帕/平方毫米)

t — metal thickness, in (mm) T - 金属厚度(毫米)

W — width of V-channel, or U lower die, in(mm)

W - V-通道的宽度,或U下模(毫米)

A V-channel or a U-die is a punch-and-die arrangement. These punch and dies often form a internal angle between the faces of the metal. The empirical constant of 1.33 is a factor proportional to metal thickness.

A V-信道或一个U-模头的冲头和模具的安排。这些冲头和模具,往往可以形成一个内部的金属面之间的角度。为1.33的经验常数是金属厚度成比例的一个因素。

In the designing a rectangular section of bending, one must determine how much metal should be allowed for the bend, because the outer fibers are elongated and the inner ones shortened. 在设计一个矩形截面的弯曲,必须确定应允许多少金属转弯,因为是细长的外纤维内部的缩短。

Although correct lengths for bends can be determined by empirical formulas, they are influenced considerably by the physical properties of the metal. Metal that has been bent retains some of its original elasticity, and there is some elastic recovery after the punch is removed. This is known as springback.

虽然经验公式可以通过以下来确定正确的长度弯曲,它们的影响相当大的金考研复试英语口语测试内容及评分标准

考研复试英语口语测试内容及评分标准

考研复试英语口试很多细节需要同学们注意,下面我们为大家整合的2014考研复试英语口语测试内容及评分标准,包括复习中的口试要求、英语复试口语常见问题总结和提前准备的问题,希望给广大在准备中的学子们带来帮助。

一、复试中的口试要求

1、评价标准:

(1)语言准确性(语法和用词的准确性、语法结构的复杂性、词汇的丰富程度、发音的准确性)

(2)话语的长短和连贯性(内容的连贯性、寻找合适词语而造成的停顿频率及长短、表达思想的语言长短等)

(3)语言的灵活性和适合性(语言表达是否灵活、自然,话语是否得体,语言能否与语境、动能和目的相适应)

2、口语测试一般包含如下两部分:

第一部分:考查学生理解并回答有关日常生活、家庭、工作、学习等问题的能力(3--5分钟)

第二部分:考查学生连续表达的能力。考生从所给的问题中选择一个话题,就此话题表达自己的看法(7--10分钟)。

3、评价成绩一般为:

a优秀--能用外语就指定的话题进行口头交流,基本没有困难

b良好--能用外语就指定的题材进行口头交流,虽有些困难,但不影响交流 c及格--能用外语就指定的话题进行简单的口头交流

d不及格--不具有口头表达能力

二、考研英语复试口语常见问题总结

1. Where do you come from?

2. What kind of landscapesurrounds your hometown?

3. What do you do duringthe Spring Festival?

4. Tell me something aboutthe customs of your hometown。

5. Could you tell mesomething about your family?

6. What socialresponsibilities should a post-graduate take?

7. Which kind of professordo you like best?

8. What does friendship meanto you and what kind of people do you make friend with?

9. What is your major? Howdo you like your major?

10. When and where did yougraduate? What qualifications have you obtained?

11. What impressed youmost when you were at university?

12. What is the bestuniversity in your opinion?

13. Do you think thesubjects you are studying today are relevant to present-day society? Why ?

14. What do you do for aliving?

15. What are your jobprospects?

16. If you had theopportunity to change your subject, what would you do with it?

17. What are your sparetime interests?

18. Where have you beentraveling to? Which place interested you most?

19. What kind ofdifferences in the system of higher education between China and othercountries?

20. Do you think you willbe able to cope with English-demands of your intended study program?

21. What difficulties doyou think youll encounter in your studies?

22. Why did you choose ouruniversity?

23. If there were anopportunity of studying abroad, what would you do?

24. Should you study moretheory or do more practice? Give your reasons, please。

25. What do you intend todo after you finish studying?

26. How serious isunemployment among young people and what will you do if you cannot find a jobafter graduation?

27. In your opinion, whatare the most serious problems associated with modern life?

28. What do you think havebeen the most important changes in your study field over the past 5 years?

29. How do you afford yourtuition?

30. Does your familysupport your decision on studying? What help do they offer?

三、提前准备,适当练习

1、见面问候语:Goodmorning/afternoon,dearprofessors.IamXXX.(Nicetomeetyou。)。告别用语:Thanksforyourtime./Thankyouforgivingsuchachance.Ihopetoseeyouagainandsoon。

2、自我介绍篇(重点)。基本上每个院校每个专业的口试中都会涉及这一方面。考官其实是要借此了解你的口头表达能力以及你的报名表之外的一些信息。自我介绍时间以2-3分钟为宜。思路要清楚,要突出重点,口语尽量流利。

1)自我介绍的主体内容

①姓名。介绍自己姓名时,发音一定要准(南方考生要多加注意)。

②年龄。年龄可以跟在姓名后带过(IamXXX,25yearsold)。

③原来的院校、专业。注意:一定要把原来学校的英文名称、专业的英文名称弄清楚(尤其是跨校、跨专业的学生)。

所属的公司、职位。注意:在职考生则应将自己公司、自己职位/职称的英文名称弄明白。

④性格、能力,爱好等。可以着重强调你的个性对你报考的专业有何积极的作用。如果报考的是学术性的专业,可以说自己细心(carefully,detail-oriented)、条理分明(logical)、踏实(steady)等;如果是研究性、应用性更强一点的专业,可以说自己负责(responsible)、可靠(dependable)、有效率(efficient)等。

⑤你对报考的专业有兴趣(beinterestedin/befascinatedwith/beobsessedwith„),可适当举出一些例子,如经常看相关的书籍、论文、文章、新闻等。在职考生可以强调知识教育对工作的影响:Inmywork,Ifinditnecessarytobroadenmyhorizonsincommunication.That’swhyIlongforenteringyourprestigiousuniversity。

结束时可以用说:That’sallaboutme./Well,that’swhoIam.Thanksforyourattention。

3、未来规划——学习规划(研究生以后的方向),人生规划(短期、长期)

4、跨专业问题——老师通常会对跨专业的学生问这样一个问题:为什么会选择这个专业?不要前篇一律地回答只说“我对这个专业感兴趣”,可以把每个人都会谈到的原因简要地罗列一下,对具有自己特色的原因则可大谈特谈,详细地阐述自己的观点,让老师印象深刻。

5、专业知识——在英语口试中(非英语专业),如果老师提问专业问题,通常不会指望你能进行流利的、专业性强的阐述;但是一些专业术语的英文说法还是有必要了解一下的。

6、提出问题——在面试快结束的时候,一般老师都会问,你有没有什么要问的(Doyouhaveanyquestionstoask?)。一般不适合说“Idon’thaveanyquestion。”可以问考官一两个你关心的问题。

考研成功难又不难,一旦大家开始准备就要全力以赴。自制力差的学生可以找几个研友,互相激励,因为坚持下来也确实不容易,也看个人习惯,有的同学可能一个人学习更有效率;在这个过程中更主要的还有大家坚持的信念,坚持完成一件事情本身就是成功。

在三百多天的日子里,老师会一直陪伴着大家,里边的每条微博、微信、咨询都是温暖大家并激励大家前行的动力。奔跑吧,2016的考生们!

虽然有突破口、也有规律可循,但这并不意味着我们可以一劳永逸、高枕无忧,要知道,想要精通世界上任何一门语言,除非有天生的语言天分,否则偷不得半分懒,只能勤勤恳恳反复练习。一遍不懂读两遍,默念不行就大声念出来,遇到不认识的单词就查,不懂的句子就静下心来拆分结构。总之,读书百遍、其义自现,英语学习之路上没有笨蛋,只有懒人。 综上就是小编给大家提供的高分技巧,技巧就是牢固的知识点和强悍的答题思路,预祝所有考生2016考研有个好成绩。

商务英语口语考试测试内容及评分标准

商务英语(BEC)口语考试测试内容及评分标准 已发布: 2008-11-13 下午1:55

回复 举报

一、口试形式与内容

BEC口试主要考查考生商务交往过程中运用英文的能力。

商务交往主要指:

1.建立和保持商务联络;

2.谈论工作;

3.制定计划与安排工作

二、测试内容

1.建立和保持商务联络

1) 向人表示问候和对问候的回答

2) 自我介绍

3) 询问对方或介绍自己的身份特征

4) 表达自己喜欢什么、不喜欢什么

5) 发出邀请、接受和拒绝邀请

6) 表示感谢和欣赏

7) 给别人提供方便,接受和拒绝帮助

2.谈论工作

1) 询问和描述工作任务

2) 询问和介绍公司情况

3) 询问和简要介绍产品

4) 比较不同产品及价格

5) 询问和提出自己的观点

6) 表示同意或反对

7) 提出、接受和拒绝建议

8) 表达需要和要求

3.制定计划和安排工作

1)商务会议安排会议日程安排会议议程

2)商务旅行预定饭店房间到饭店住宿和结账点菜进行了旅行咨询预定机

票乘火车旅行根据指南行路

BEC口试形式及评分标准

测试分两个阶段

第一阶段:采取考官与考生交流的方式,时间约为4-5分钟。 考生应对考官的问题做出回答或对考官提出的要求做出反应。考官所题

问题主要针对商务交往的具体内容。

第二阶段:采取考生与考生交流的方式,时间约为3-4分钟。 每组考生抽去两组卡片,每组卡片为两张,一张卡片上描述具体内容,另一张卡片是针对其内容的问题。考生可得到一张卡片上描述具体内容和另一考生卡片相关问题卡片,有足够时间阅读卡片,交流的内容局限于这两组

卡片。

评分标准:测试依据发音、准确性、流利程度以及交流能力四个部分判

定3个等级。分数分别为3分、2分、1分。

具体标准如下:

1.发音(包括声音大小、重音、语调、语气)

3分:尽管有些读音错误,并且有受母语影响的迹象,但比较容易听懂

且抑扬顿挫较流畅。

2分:由于发音受母语影响,使某些词不易听懂,有一些读音错误,受

母语影响严重。

1分:考生的发音很难听懂。经常出现读音错误,受母语影响明显,语

调不对且断断续续,给听者造成麻烦。

2.准确性(包括语法、用词及说话方式)

3分:有错误,但基本上能把意思表达清楚。所采用的句子结构规范,但处理复杂句子结果比较困难。对所熟悉的话题词汇较充分,但表达有欠缺。 2分:有的意思表达不清。所采用的句子结构多为基本句式,且有语法

及用词错误,对所熟悉的话题有一定词汇描述能力。

1分:表达令人费解,基本句子结构出现错误,缺乏用于交流的词汇。

3.流利程度(包括语速、长短句搭配)

3分:听者感觉不错,尽管有停顿,但较流利,能组织语言,用较长的

句子表达,但有些句子不够完整。

2分:听者需要耐心,尽管有停顿但基本流利,句子比较短。

1分:听者需要非常耐心。经常中断且间隔较长。

4.交流能力(包括独立性、灵活性以及对谈话方式的把握)

3分:基本具有独立性。只是有时需要在其它考生的帮助或提示下表达。

在与其它考生的交流中占主导地位,回答其它考生所提问题较迅速。 2分:有时需要依靠别人的帮助完成表达。在交流中有不妥之处。不能

很快回答其它考生所提问题。

1分:需要经常依靠别人的帮助才能完成表达。掌握了一些句式但使用

不当,对其它考生的提问,反应慢,甚至没有反应。

济南大学10级英语口语考试内容

济南大学10级英语口语考试内容

On Culture

What do you know about the American symbols?

Give us at least 3 symbols of Chinese culture.

I think the most famous american symbols of usa are The Statue of Liberty(自由女神像),Barbie dolls(芭比娃娃), Mattel Toy Company,Buffalo Nickel(野牛镍币),Uncle Sam(山姆大叔).(记不住最后三个可以 and so on). The Statue of Liberty is located in the Newyork City. The Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy. Of all the symbols,I like the Barbie dolls most. Barbie doll is very lovely and when I am a child,I played with it when I’m lonely. Even it can’t speak and act,it is one of my best friends.

Our motherland has long history,the symbols that stand for our culture are numerous. In my opion,the most standing three symbols are Chinese Dragon, Chinese Characters and Beijing Opera. They are all our precious treasures. I love them very much!

Friends and Friendship

What do you think of friendship and how do you get it?

Do you prefer making friends on the Internet or face to face?

It’s hard to find the best friendship in life,because best friends should has the special qualities. I value most in friendship are honest and comprehension.Honest is the root for friendship. Though it is easier to tell a lie, it is difficult to keep it. In another way,a friend indeed is a friends in need. He must be comprehensive so that he can know your sadness as well as happiness. Because of honest,we can be friends,and becaue of comprehension,we can be the best friends. So the honest and comprehension is the way I get my friendship.

I prefer making a friend face to face. Because internet must have some dangerous fact, it’s too easy to tell a lie on the net. Some advantages making friends face to face can’t be placed by the net. So I prefer making friend face to face.

On Success

What do you think success is ?

What would you do to be a successful manwoman?

In my own understanding, success is a feeling when you are satisfied with your living at present, is the happiness when you make your dream come true at last . I have a lot of dreams actually,some are small and some are quite huge. My dream is to feel happiness and let the world feel happiness. The first part has already come true. To be success means to make my dream come true.

I am going to keep going and dont let other things beat me and my dreams. Dreams is really difficult to be done ,everyone needs to try best to make them come true, but to me ,dreams can be done in the end .

City life and Country life

Where would you like to find a job after graduation, in a big city or in a small town? What is the most serious challenge of living in big cities?

I prefer finding a job in a big city. in the cities, we have more opportunities.In cities there are many shops. There is no problem if I need to buy something. If it isnt in one shop I can go to another one. In the village there are usually only few shops and even the only one with the necessary foods. But cities arent only centres of shopping but there are also many offices. Of course all the good schools are in cities. People in the cities can find a now job more easily than people in the country.

By contrast, Citizens have to put up with noise, harmful smoke and dirt. The air is not clean enough for people, especially in the downtown areas. The majority of citizens are tired of overcrowded conditions and bad environments.

Teacher-student Relationship

What do you think are the qualities of a good teacher?

How to achieve a good Teacher-student relationship? (cooperation in class, mutual understanding and respect)

The qualities of a good teacher I think ,first of all,she or he must be patient enough to adjust his or her studentsmistakes ,bad habits or bad tempers. second,I think he or she must be kind and easy going,though strict is needed sometimes,but be too strict will frighten the students,and make them think you are not reliable and feasible.Just make yourself be their friend and they will trust you,and listen to you. finally I think that a good teacher should set good examples to his or her students so that he or she can get

respect .and be the leader of the students

As a student, its good for us to cooperate with teacher,this is symbol of respecting teacher and ourselves.of course ,the respect is the mutual respect,and i want to say that the good behaviors of students will also give teacher some confidence ,encouragement ,and i think this is the largest satisfaction the teachers want to gain from students .

Lottery Tickets

Suppose you won 0.3 billion yuan, what would you do with the money?

Do you think money is everything?

I would use the money to realize my dream. My dream is to feel happiness and let the world feel happiness. Winning the lottery has already made me happy, so I would try to do something meaningful,like help others who can’t afford school,help the people who are poor. I can make full use of it to make more money to do the more helpful and meaningfull things.

Though money is important in our life,is not the most important thing in our life.Money can buy a bed,but cant buy a good sleep. Money can buy a house,but cant buy a close home.Money can buy a lot of things,but cant buy health.Is that right? So money isnt everthing in our life.I think it just a kind of useful thing.In a peaceful world,the most important thing in our life is to help others,make our world more beautiful.Maybe one day,we all live in love with our goodness,joy and delight.Mqybe one day we all share in joy and celebrate in light!

This is the most important thing in ones life. Its a hope of all over the world.

Traveling

Describe a place that has deeply impressed you.

Where do you want to visit most?

This semester, I went to the Mountian Tai together with my classmates. Very exicited, we were eager to reach the destination on the course by bus. We began to climb directly we got to the foot of the mountian. It was very late in the evening , but none of us felt tired. There were many visiters there, and all of us enjoyed the process of climbing the mountain. Eventually, we reached the top. Not only did we have a rest there, but we took several pictures as well. Though very tired, we were very enjoyable about this

unforgettable trip.

I would like to visit Paris. Because people say that Paris is a very romantic city. Paris people are also very romantic,I know this through the news. I want to breathe the romantic air in Paris city and also become a romantic person.

How to Prepare for Earthquakes?

1) Have you ever experienced an earthquake?

2) What would you do if an earthquake happened?

I haven’t experienced an earthquake. But I have a deeply impression of Sichuans earthquake. Wenchuan,a small city,was destroyed by the earthquake.Many people were buried underground.Many houses were collapsed.The army came to help people ,saved some people who were buried underground.People said thanks to them.

When the earthquake happened, I would run outside as soon as possible and stay in the open fields. If I can’t get out the house,I should choose a safe place to protect myself,saying the corner of the house. After the earthquake, I would try my best to help others and rebuild my homeland.

英语自考内容

序课程

号 代码 1

03707 03706 04729 00794 00795 00593 00594 00595 00596 00597 00522

课程名称 教材名称

学分 4

备注

***思想、***理论和„三***思想、***理论和„三个代表‟重要思想概论 个代表‟重要思想概论 思想道德修养与法律基础

思想道德修养与法律基础

2 2

3 大学语文 大学语文 综合英语(一)上册 综合英语(一)下册 综合英语(二)上册

综合英语(二)下册 英语听力(上、下册)

4

4 综合英语(一) 10

5 综合英语(二) 10

6 听力 8

实践性考核课程

7 口语 英语口语教程 8

8 英语阅读(一) 英语阅读(一) 6

9 英语阅读(二) 英语阅读(二) 6

10 英语写作基础 英语写作基础 4

11

英语国家概况 英语国家概况 4

2012年4月上海自学考试日程安排表

4月22日 (星期日)

14:

9:00-11:30

14:30-17:00

9:00-11:30

30-17:00

*(03707)***

思想、***和“三个代表”重要思想概论

*(03706)思想道德修养与法律基础

*(00595)

*(00794)

*(00522)英语

*(00795)综合英语(二)

*(04729)大学语文

9:00-11:30

14:30-17:00

9:00-11:30

14:30-17:00

4月14日 (星期六)

4月15日 (星期日)

4月21日(星期六)

综合英

英语阅国家概

语(一)

读(一) 况

011年10月上海自学考试日程安排表

10月22日(星期

六)14:

08:30开始

00开始 *(00795)

*(00596)英语阅读(二)

综合英语(二)

*(00597)英语写作基础

*(00794)综合英语(一)

*(03707)***思想***理论和“三个代表”

*(03706)思想道德修养与法律基础

08:30开始

14:00开始

08:30开始

14:00开始

08:30开始

10月29日 (星期六)

10月30日 (星期日)

14:00开始

10月23日(星期日)

*(04729)大学语文

本科科目

序号 1

课程代码 03709

课程名称 马克思主义基本原理概论 中国近现代史纲要

教材名称 马克思主义基本原理概论 中国近现代史纲要

学分 4

备注

2 03708 2

3

新编日语1

00840 第二外语(日语)

新编日语2

6

3 00842 第二外语(德语) 基础德语

高级英语(上册)

6

序号3为第二外语,任选1门 112

-8为必考课程

4 00600 高级英语

高级英语(下册) 英汉翻译教程 新编英语听力与口译

新编英语听力与口译 英语写作 英美文学选读 现代语言学 现代英语语法 英语词汇学 英语修辞学概论 教育学

5 6

00087 英语翻译 08681

口译与听力(口译)

口译与听力(听力)

6 3

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

08682 3 4 6 4 4 4 4 4

不计学分

序号 9-13为选考课程,任选3门以上。

其中教育学(一)仅限担任教师工作者选考

00603 英语写作 00604 英美文学选读 00830 现代语言学 00831 英语语法 00832 英语词汇学 09075 英语修辞学 00429 教育学(一) 07998 毕业考核

合计

58

2012年4月上海自学考试日程安排表

4月21日(星期六)

4月22日(星期日)

14:

4月14日(星期六) 4月15日(星期日)

9:00-11:30 14:30-17:00

9:00-11

:30 30-17:00

9:00-11:30

14:30-17:00 9:00-11:30 14:30-17:00

*(03708)中*(03709)马克国近现代史纲要

思主义基本原理概论

(09075)英语修辞学

*(00087)英语翻译

*(00831)英语语法

*(00832)英语词汇学

*(00604)英美文学选读

*(00429)教育

学(一)(见说 明5)

2011年10月上海自学考试日程安排表

10月30日

(星期日) 08:

08:30开

14:00开始

08:30开始

14:00开始

08:30开始

14:00开始

30开始

*(00600)高级英语

*(00429)教育学(一) *(00830)现代语言学

(00840)第二外语(日语) (00842)第二外语(德语)

*(00603)英语写作

*(03708)中国近现代史纲要

*(03709)马克思主义基本原理概论

14:00开始

10月22日(星期六) 10月23日(星期日) 10月29日(星期六)

英语口试内容

口试内容

考试分为两部分:第一部分是以一篇小短文为基础,要求考生朗读指定部分,并能在不看短文的情况下回答主考老师就短文内容提出的若干问题。第二部分是就日常生活或简单的社会问题提出一个可供考生自由发挥的话题,做一个简短的口头作文,一般不少于十句话。考官将根据考生4方面的表现打分,包括语音语调语流、理解能力、表达能力、反应快慢,成绩按5、4、3、2四级评定,3分和3分以上为合格。口试成绩将与高考成绩一起公布。

考试流程

1、考生凭《准考证》、《口试通知单》及身份证按照《外语口试通知单》上的时间按时到达指定的考点报到。

2、考生进入考场只能携带钢笔或圆珠笔(蓝、黑色)、高考《准考证》、《外语口试通知单》、身份证,不得携带手机、电子词典、书包、书籍、纸张等。

3、考生进入考点,要严格按人员的安排进行有关各项准备。 一般程序为在工作人员的指引下依次进入候考室、备考室和考场。

4、考生在候考室领取《外语口试成绩表》,对照口试通知单认真填写区县、口试号、考生号、姓名、性别等项目。

5、每个考生在备考室按试卷内容准备10分钟,然后由工作人员安排进入考场口试。

6、口试时要严肃认真,积极主动回答口试教师的提问。

7、口试完毕后,立即退出考场,退出考场后不得与未口试的考生交谈有关口试内容,不得在考场附近停留或大声喧哗。

高考生如何准备英语口试

1、考前准备

找一篇350字左右的英语短文,在规定的时间内默读完短文,然后自问自答或互相提问,模拟考试的情形,练习回答问题的技巧。考生们可以提前准备一些关于你的家庭、校园生活、学习、业余爱好、旅游、假期活动、对社会问题的认识等等的话题。另外,如果考生不想刻意地准备考试,也可以选择大声朗读一些英语文章,纠正一下自己的发音,培养英语语感,最重要的是培养一种用英语思维的习惯。

考前和考时尽量保持平和心态。考试时着装要大方自然。考生要带齐证件,如有遗漏也不要慌张,应向相关老师咨询。家长应该注意的问题是帮助考生检查考试用的证件等是否带齐,考场禁止的物品一定提醒考生不要带入考场。为防止考试迟到,一定要事先问好乘车路线。

2、考中准备

第一,合理利用备考室的10分钟。考生拿到试题后,应该迅速默读完全文(注意不要出声读,因为出声会影响对短文的理解),记下大意,准备回答老师的提问。读完以后,要特别注意带星号或其他特殊符号的段落,老师会让考生朗读这一部分。考生准备回答问题时, “五个W”是最常用的方法, 即 Who-人物?When-时间?Where-地点?What-事件?How-解决方案。因为时间有限,所以,遵循这“五个W”原则,可以在最短的时间内理解文章的大意,抓住短文的中心思想。

第二,正确应对即兴陈述。首先要条理清晰,注意在陈述时,要使用下面一些词,如first?鄄ly, secondly, thirdly,etc.或者是on one hand,on the other hand? 或者是in the first place,in the second place,etc. 其次,要避免频繁使用同一个词或词组。考生在考试的时候,一定不要频繁使用同样的词组,要不断变换表达方式。再次,要控制语速,不要追求快。适当、自然的语速,不仅可以给老师留下好的印象,而且还可以为自己争取更多思考的时间。最后,避免使用长句或复杂句子。

3、注意礼节

英语口试,也算是一种面试,第一印象非常重要。 所以,考生要特别注意礼节。进入考场后,考生要礼貌地用英语问候老师,当口试结束后,考生应起身说表示感谢或再见的话。

如果有问题答不上来时,千万不要保持沉默,可以说些如“Well”,“Okay”,“How to say”,“Let me think.”“As far as I remember/know”之类的句子,给考官一个有应变能力的印象,当然这种情况不宜出现过多。另外,当听不明白老师的问题时,切忌不懂装懂,答非所问。 这时,要用英语请老师重复时可说:“Sorry I cannot catch you?May I beg your pardon?”或“I beg your pardon?”或“Would you please to repeat?”或“Would you please to say it again?”当遇到不会读的单词的时,考生不要盲目乱读,可以用英语直接向老师询问:“Sorry,I don't know how to pronounce this word. Would you please tell me how to read this word?”or“Can you tell me how to pronounce this word?”否则,考生会因为单词发音错误,而被扣分。

要注意眼睛和手势的使用。在老师提问的时候, 考生要注视着对方,用眼睛与老师交流,表示你在认真听老师的提问。在回答问题时,考生在用英语说的同时借助手势表达出你想表达的思想。 还要用眼睛不时地注视每一位主考老师。千万不要低头自语或者只顾回答自己的问题,无视老师的存在。

口试最忌讳的是沉默不语,紧张、胆怯、怕错,考试中要保持良好的心态,尽量克服紧张情绪。对自己要有信心,入考场前,叮嘱自己一定能行,调整自己的紧张情绪,保持自信,相信自己一定能考出好成绩。

托福口语考试内容都有哪些

智课网TOEFL备考资料

托福口语考试内容都有哪些

摘要: 托福口语考试是对托福考试一个综合的考试过程,其涵盖了听说读写四个方面全部内容,今天小编就详细解说下托福口语考试内容,方便各位同学备考。

考生需要对 托福 考试口语有一个全面的了解,包括背单词,了解评分标准,题型以及如何作答等等,只有作好充足的准备才能考出好成绩,平时练习时要注意思维逻辑,语言组织和词句质量,可组建一个资料库,下面小编介绍了 托福口语 考试内容,希望对大家能有所帮助。

托福口语考试 内容如下:

现行的TSE相比又有较大改动。这个部分共有6题,持续约20分钟。

第一、二题要求考生就某一话题阐述自己的观点。

第三、四题要求考生首先在45秒内阅读一段短文,随后短文隐去,播放一段与短文有关的对话或课堂演讲。最后,要求考生根据先前阅读的短文和播放的对话或课堂演讲回答相关问题,考生有30秒钟的准备时间,然后进行60秒钟的回答。例如,短文中描述了对学校体育馆进行扩建的两种方案,对话中一位同学阐述了自己的立场,即赞成哪种方案,反对哪种方案,并列举了若干理由。要求考生叙述对话中同学的立场并解释他/她列举了哪些理由支持这一观点。

第五、六题要求考生听一段校园情景对话或课堂演讲,然后回答相关问题。考生有20秒钟的准备时间,之后进行60秒钟的回答。例如,先播放一段市场学课堂演讲,演讲中教授列举了两种市场调查的方法,然后要求考生使用课堂演讲中的观点和例子描述教授列举出的两种市场调查的方法。

考生可以在听音过程中记笔记以帮助答题。在准备和答题时,屏幕上会显示倒计时的时钟。

虽然话题的种类较多,但 新托福 口语 考题可大致分为三类:一、个人观点及经验;二、大学校园场景;三、学术讲座内容。在总共的六道题中,Task 1 和Task 2考个人观点及经验;Task 3和Task 5考大学校园场景;Task 4和Task 6考学术讲座内容。

刚才是按照题目的内容来分,但如果按题目的性质去分的话,Task 1和Task 2属于Independent Speaking

Tasks(独立口语命题),即不需要你做阅读或听录音,直接上来就讲,而且讲话内容仅涉及你的个人经验及观点。

从Task 3到Task 6,这四道题被称为Integrated Speaking Tasks(综合口语命题),这类考题就必须先读一段文字,或听一段录音(录音内容可以是conversation,也可以是lecture),甚至既读又听,然后结合reading and/or

listening再去讲。综合口语命题有效地把听、读、说三项技能结合起来,体现出现代英语口语考试的一个新方向。

在新 托福考试 流程中,口语是第三门考试,与之前的听力考试间隔10分钟的休息时间,因此考生应带着较为轻松的心情上场。

以上就是托福口语考试内容,知己知彼百战百胜,了解托福考试,更加有目的性备考,争取夺得高分。

相关字搜索: 托福口语考试内容

一级口语等级考试内容

全区一级口语等级考试内容(幼儿园版)

一. 颜色

红色red 黄色yellow 绿色green 黑色black 白色white 蓝色blue 橘红色 orange 粉色 pink 紫色 purple 褐色 brown 灰色 gray

二 身体部位

头head 脸face 眼睛 eye 耳朵ear 鼻子nose 嘴巴 mouth 头发hair 脖子neck 胳膊 arm 手hand 肩膀 shoulder 胸chest 胃stomach 腿leg 脚foot( feet 复数,两只脚) 脚指头 toe 手指头finger 膝盖 knee

三 数字

1. 基数词

一 one 二two 三three四four五 five六 six 七seven 八eight 九nine 十ten

2. 序数词

第一first 第二second 第三third 第四fourth 第五fifth 第六 sixth 第七 seventh 第八eighth 第九ninth 第十tenth

四.衣物名称

毛衣sweater 长裤 trousers 短裙 skirt 连衣裙 dress 上衣jacket 外衣coat 女式衬衫blouse 男式衬衫shirt 帽子hat 鸭舌帽cap 袜子socks

长筒袜stockings 手套gloves 运动服 sports suit 鞋子 shoe 手绢handkerchief 雨衣raincoat 围巾scarf 背心vest 校服school suit 拉链zipper 纽扣button

五.物品名称

图片 picture 地图map 旗子flag 国旗national flag 钟表clock

录音机recorder 课桌desk 桌子 table 椅子chair 黑板blackboard 门door 窗户window 灯light 地板floor 电扇 fan 空调 A.C (air conditioner ) 纸 paper 窗帘 curtain 日历calendar 字典 dictionary 书book

橡皮rubber / eraser 电脑computer 电话telephone 眼镜 a pair of glasses 手表watch 镜子 mirror 尺子ruler 钢笔pen 铅笔pencil

铅笔盒pencil-box 书包bag 蜡烛candle 棒棒糖 lollipop

六 动物名称

熊bear 蝴蝶butterfly 猫cat 公鸡cock 鳄鱼crocodile 鹿deer 龙dragon 鸭子duck 蜻蜓dragonfly 大象elephant 长颈鹿giraffe 鹅goose 马horse 袋鼠 kangaroo 豹子leopard 狮子lion 猴子monkey 狗 dog 牛ox 老鼠 mouse / rat (mice 复数) 熊猫panda 兔子rabbit 蛇snake 松鼠squirrel 天鹅swan 老虎 tiger 斑马zebra 企鹅penguin

七 指令动词

走,去go 展示 show 指point to 来come 给give 拿起pick up 摸 touch

八. 问候

Hello! (Hello!) Hi! ( Hi!) Glad to meet you. (Glad to meet you, too. ) How are you? (Fine, thank you.)

Good morning! (Good morning!)

Nice to see you! ( Nice to see you, too.)

九. 回答

1. What’s your name? My name is …

2. Is your name Li Ming? Yes, it is. / No, my name is Tony.

3. Are you Li Ming? Yes, I am. / No, I’m Tony.

4. How old are you? I’m six.

Are you ten? Yes, I am. / No, I’m six.

5. Where do you study? I’m in Xin Shi Ji kindergarten.

6. What’s your kindergarten’s name? My kindergarten’s name is Xin Shi Ji kindergarten.

7. Which primary kindergarten are you in? I’m in Xin Shi Ji kindergarten.

8. What do you like? I like cat.

What can you do? I can jump.

Do you like dog? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

9. Can you sing/ dance/speak English? Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.

10. How old is your father/ mother? He is thirty-four. / She is thirty-one.

What’s your father’s / mother’s name? My father’s / mother’s name is …

11. What would you like to eat / drink?

12. You are very beautiful! / You’re pretty! / You’re handsome.

Thank you very much!

13. What color is your dress? It’s blue.

What color is it? It’s …

What color are your trousers? They are black.

14. What are you wearing? A sweater, trousers and shoes.

Are you wearing a dress? No, I’m not.

15. Can you count from one to ten? Yes, I can. (Please count.)

16. Where is rubber? It’s in / on / under the box.

17. Is this your watch? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t.

18. What’s on the table?

19. How many pens are there in my hand?

20. Take / Have a seat, please. Thank you!

21. What about you?

How about you?

22. Sorry, I don’t know.

23. How many books are there?

24. How many pens?

25. What do you have?

十.指令动作

1. Open the door.

2. Close the window.

3. Open your books / eyes / mouth, please.

4. Stand up, please.

Sit down, please.

5. Come to me.

Run to me.

Jump to me.

Walk to me.

6. Go to the door.

Fly to the door.

7. Face to me.

8. Clap your hands.

9. Stamp your feet three times.

10. Shake your head twice.

Nod your head twice.

11. Run back to your seat.

Walk back to your seat.

Fly back to your seat.

Jump back to your seat.

12. Turn on the TV / light / recorder.

Turn off the TV / light / recorder.

13. Clean the blackboard.

Brush the blackboard.

14. Write down your name.

15. Wash your face.

16. Brush your teeth.

17. Comb your hair.

18. Drink the water.

19. Eat an apple.

20. Stop.

21. Listen to me.

22. Read a book.

23. Come here. / Go there.

24. Touch your hair.

25. Put on your coat. Take off your coat.

26. Colour it yellow.

27. Draw a picture / a dog.

28. Carry / move your chair.

29. Pick up the pen, please. And put it on the table.

30. Take the green pen away, please.

31. Point to the second window, please.

32. Show me the green pen.

33. Find out a red pen for me, please. And pass it to me.

34. Give me the red pen.

35. Point to the piano.

36. Point to your nose. Point to my nose.

十一. 当考官问话速度快或没听懂时要用

1. Pardon!

2. Say it again, please.

3. Speak slowly, please.

教师口语考试内容概括

师口语是口语交际的一种类型,最大的特点就是职业性。

教师口语的基本特征:

1.可接受性 2.规范性 3.教育性 4.科学性 5.儿童性 6.生动性 7.鼓励性

口语交际的三个原则:合作原则 得体原则 角色原则

合作原则所要遵循的四项准则:数量准则 质量准则 关联准则 方式准则

质量准则包括的两个方面:要说至少自己认为是真实的话,要说至少自己认为是有根据的话 方式准则所包含的四个具体的要求:1.避免晦涩 2.避免歧义 3.简明扼要 4.条理清晰 得体原则的含义:

“得体原则”应该是一个更具有涵盖力的,对于合作原则起到援救作用的原则。

所谓“得体”是指用于交际的言语材料与言语环境之间最为适切的一种境界,是两者之间的一种最佳组合,也就是我们通常所说的“恰如其分”

得体原则包含三个准则:礼貌准则 幽默准则 克制准则

礼貌准则的要求:1.赞誉,适当赞誉,不过分 2.谦虚,适当谦虚,不过分

3.一致,减少分歧,力求一致 4.同情,减少反感,增进谅解

5.宽宏,得理让人,给人面子 6.恰当的称呼,尊重文化习俗,体现民族特色

幽默原则作用:1是增加情趣,活跃气氛2是缓解矛盾,避免冲突3是回击无理,机智作答 克制准则要求:1含蓄,不直截了当表达意思2分寸,考虑对方的接受能力3制怒,不用训斥甚至谩骂的方式

角色原则包括以下的准则:1.角色条件准则 2.角色风格准准则

口语表达的基本技巧有很多,这里着中介绍四种:

1.语音技巧 2表达技巧 3修辞技巧 4.态势技巧

语音技巧:1.发音:发音要力求准确,掌握发音原理,美化音质

2.语调:重音,停顿,升降,节奏

表达技巧:1.准确与模糊 2.简洁与反复 3.直述与委婉 4.平实与幽默 5.先说与后说 修辞技巧:1.比喻 2.比拟 3.夸张 4.对偶 5.排比 6.仿拟 7.回环 8.闪避

态势语作用:1.可以引起学生的注意,使之集中于言语所指向的内容。

2.能扩大教师教学信息的发射量,增加学生对有用信息的接受量。

3.有时可替代有声语言,向学生独立发送信息。

4.可以增强所讲内容的形象性,使学生在接受语言信息的同时,看到生动的形

象,便于理解和记忆。

5.可以调节课堂学习气氛。

教师运用态势语的原则:1.辅助性原则 2.准确性原则 3.稳定性原则 4.灵活性原则

5.美感性原则

教学口语的含义:教学口语是教师用于课堂教学的工作用语。

教学口语的特征:1.规范性 2.启发性 3.形象性

教学口语的重要含义:教学口语是教师面向学生传授知识,培养能力的最重要手段,是教师和学生之间沟通的桥梁。

教学口语的重要作用:1.教学口语是提高课堂教学效率的重要保证

2.教学口语是培养学生口语能力的重要途径

教学口语按教学过程中不同作用不同方式可分:导入语 讲授语 提向语 应变语 结束语 导入语的含义:导入语又叫导语,开讲语。它是教师上课开始时对学生讲的与教学目标有关,能调动学生学习兴趣的一席话。

导入语的作用:

1.激发兴趣,因发动机 2.一起关注,导入情境

3.沟通情感,活跃气氛 4.承上启下,明确目标

导入语的要求:

1. 要新颖活泼,忌平淡刻板

2. 要庄谐适度,忌庸俗低级

3. 要短小精悍,忌冗长拖沓

导入语的类型:

1.故障导入 2.情景导入 3.教具导入 4知识导入 5.谈话导入 6.游戏导入

讲授语的含义:讲授语是指导教师系统连贯地向学生讲解材料、传授知识和技能、培养情感

和价值观的教学语言形式。他是课堂教学中最基本的语言表达形式,是教学语言的主体。 讲授语的功能:1传授知识解疑释难2启发思维培养能力3传道育人培养习惯

讲授语的要求:1要深浅适度2要重在点拨3要连贯畅达

讲授语的种类:1讲析语2归纳语3点拨语

提问语的含义:提问语是指导老师根据教学要求和学生的实际提出问题,促进学生思考钻研

以加深理解的教学语言形式。

提问语的功能:1训练思维2集中注意3反馈调控

提问语的要求:1要适时2要适度(难度,深度)3要适量4要讲究策略(面向全班、因人

而问、不可逼问、适时的语速等)5要启思

提问语的种类:强调性提问语、矫正性提问语、发展性提问语

提问语的类型:判断型“是什么”、论证型“为什么”、说明型“怎么样”、想像型“会怎样” 提问语的技巧:1巧设矛盾激疑设问2由易到难连环设问3故布迷津迂回设问4叩其两端正

反设问

应变语含义:应变语是教师在课堂上及时调解师生关系、处理课堂突发事件时所应用的语言 应变语的功能:吸引学生注意、调控教学过程、

应变语的要求:1针对性2分寸性3自然性

应变语的种类:1教师自身的失误2来自学生的偶发事件3来自外界的偶然事件

结束语的含义:结束语又叫断课语、结尾语。他是课堂教学将要结束时,教师在进行引导学

生对所学知识与技能进行及时的总结、巩固、扩展、延伸与迁移的教学活动

时所用的语言。

结束语的功能:1整理概括巩固记忆2启发思维开阔视野3加深印象巩固记忆4指导实践培

养能力5承前启后过渡自然6质疑问难发展智力

结束语的要求:忌拖沓、忌仓促、忌平淡

结束语的种类:1归纳总结式2拓展延伸式3练习巩固式4活动游戏式5探讨式

教学口语综合运用应遵循的原则:计划性原则、相关性原则、灵活性原则

表扬语的定义:

表扬语是指在教育活动中,对学生个体或群体所表现出来的良好的思想品质,言语行为给予肯定性的评价。

表扬语的意义:

首先,通过表扬帮助小学生从一个个具体的事实中,明白哪些思想品质和道德行为是正确的,从而培养他们向真,向善,向美的价值取向;其次,表扬作为一种肯定的评价,满足了小学生被尊重,被肯定,被赞赏的需要,激起了小学生愉悦的情绪体验,能够增强他们的自信和自尊,激发他们发展自己,完善自我的要求,从而形成积极向上,不断进取的人生态度和价值追求。再次,通过表扬可以培当众表扬养小学生欣赏他人,学习他人的良好心态,从而使他们在家庭,集体,社会生活中,能够赞赏别人,并善于取别人之长,补自己之短。

表扬语的要求:

1.真实性原则 2.公正性原则 3.及时性原则 4.适度性原则 5.发展性原则

表扬类型:

1.当众表扬 2.个别表扬 3.随时夸奖 4.迂回夸奖 5.赠言暗示

鼓动语的定义:鼓动语是教师在学生有畏难情绪,信息不足时,帮助他们树立信心,推动他们前进的教育语言,也是在学生取得一定成绩,激励他们向更高目标迈进的教育语言。 表扬语与鼓动语的区别:

表扬语着眼于评价学生以往或当下的言行,鼓动语着眼于对学生未来言行的期望;表扬语重在肯定,鼓动语重在激励。鼓动语一般不单独使用,而是常常与别的教育语言结合使用,在表扬,批评,启迪后,用鼓动语激发学生的信心,指出努力的方向。

鼓动语的类型:

1.夸奖式 2.启发式 3.激将式 4.号召式

批评语的定义:批评是指在教育活动中,对学生群体或个体所表现出来的错误思想和不良行为的否定,以使被批评者改正,也使全体同学受到教育,避免再次出现类似的问题。

批评语的意义:要求我们教师能及时发现他们身上的缺点和不足,予以指出,并指出改正的途径,由此提高学生对是非,美丑,善恶的辩别,判断能力,激发学生的上进心,只有这样,学生才有可能健康成长。

批评的原则:尊重性原则 引导性原则

批评的类型:1榜样法 2.肯定法 3.暗示法 4.幽默法 5.宽容法

家访的类型:沟通型、教育型、探视型

家庭访问的交际特点:1.交际对象的多样性 2.交际地点的特殊性 3.交际中心的特殊性 家庭访问的交际原则:1用言语创设平等交流的环境2听说结合做出积极反应

3突出谈话主题限定谈话范围(1孩子的在校表现 2孩子在家的情况3孩子家庭的有关情况) 4正面称赞入手,巧妙提出建议与批评5多使用叙述性语言,少用专业术语。

家访注意事项:1合理安排家访时间 2小心避开某些话题3周密考虑家访对象4着装大方端庄,说话真实自信

雅思口语考试内容介绍

最权威的国际教育服务平台

雅思口语考试内容介绍

雅思考试口语第一个部分:introduction and interview部分

introduction and interview我们主要可以分为;两个部分解答:在开始的时候,考官会问你一些基本的问题,主要是一些关于身份的问题,可能会问你:名字是什么,看你的证件吗等等简单的问题,这个过程之后就会正式进入到这个所谓interview的部分。interview的部分是关于基本的一些生活相关的问题的一些口语的交流,可能会问到关于你学业,你的生活,你的家乡,你的兴趣爱好这样方面的问题,这整个过程持续时间大约是四到五分钟的时间。 雅思考试口语第二部分:Personal long-turn部分

在这个部分,学生会拿到一张写着题目的纸张,这个题目主要是关于人,或者一个地方,或者是某件事情,还有一些提示性的问题。根据这这个问题,雅思考试的考生会有一分钟的准备时间和两分钟的考试时间,考生要把这自己准备的一段话进行阐述,这段话的内容必须围绕刚刚给出的题目进行,也可以适当延伸一下。

雅思考试口语第三部分:Two-way discussion部分

这个部分和第一部分有类似的东西,主要是以问答的形式出现,考官会抛出一些问题,这些问题是和第二部分的内容比较相关的,涉及的主要层面是关于社会、自然、生态之类的,内容比第一部分相对深入很多,词汇量的要求也会大一些,这个持续时间是四五分钟的样子。 整场雅思考试口语部分会在十一到十四分钟之间,是所有考试时间里面最短的一个项目。很多考生就会问,这么短的时间,考官如何检验出真正的水平呢?雅思考试的口试部分到底是怎么在评分的呢?接下来我们就说说所谓的口语考试的评分标准。

雅思考试口试部分的评分标准有这样的四项:

A、Fluency and coherence,流利度和相关性

B、Lexical resource,词汇量

C、Grammatical range and accuracy,所谓的语法的范畴和我们的所谓的什么,准确度

D、Pronunciation,发音

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雅思口语考试内容是什么?

雅思口语考试内容是什么?

雅思口语考试内容是什么呢?这是大家比较关心的问题,雅思口语是中国人薄弱的环节,本文为大家介绍了雅思口语考试内容是什么,希望对大家有所帮助。 雅思口语考试内容是什么?雅思口语考试问题的回答过程中,通常出现的情况就是在没有任何时间思考的情况下,考生很多时候的回答都是第一反应。这样的答案内容并不是说不好,只是说缺乏创意,而且很多学生都会说一样的内容。 雅思口语考试内容是什么?请看以下介绍:

雅思口语考试内容第一部分,introduction and interview部分

那什么叫introduction andinterview呢,主要我们分成两个部分在这个小项里面,第一呢,在一开始考官会问你一些最基本的,确定你身份的问题,比如说他会问道,你的名字是什么?我可以看你的证件吗?Can I have your ID please-然后在这个过程之后呢,当确定了身份之后就会正式进入到这个所谓interview的部分了。同学们最好参考一下最新雅思口语机经的内容,了解雅思口语评分标准同样重要。

在interview的部分他会考察一些关于基本生活的口语交流,比如说他会问到关于你学业,你的生活,你的家乡,你的兴趣爱好等方面的问题,第一部分我们持续的时间是四到五分钟的时间。

雅思口语考试内容第二部分,Personal long-turn部分

在这个Personal long-turn的过程中,我们会拿到一张A4大小的纸,在这个纸上有一个题目,可能是关于人,或者一个地方,或者一个事情,或者一个东

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西,下面会有一些提示的问题,根据这个问题,考生有一分钟的时间去做准备,然后两分钟的时间咱们需要自己来说一段的话,必须围绕着我们这个题目所给出的内容来回答。同学们也可以相应的做一些展开。

雅思口语考试内容第三部分,Two-way discussion部分

第三部分,叫Two-waydiscussion,那什么叫Two-waydiscussion呢,实际上形式上来说它是第一部分的一个类似的东西,它以问答的形式出现,考官会抛出一些问题,这些问题在内容上通常是跟第二部分的问题有关系,

Two-waydiscussion主要讨论一些社会、自然生态以及各个方面的内容,而难度比第一部分要深很多,词汇量的要求也会大一些,这个部分的考试时间也持续在四到五分钟之间。整个口语考试我们只有十一到十四分钟。

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雅思口语考试内容都有哪些?

雅思口语考试内容都有哪些?

雅思口语考试,是雅思考试的四大部分之一,因此,考生们在准备雅思考试的时候,一定要重视雅思口语考试。雅思口语考试分为三部分,下面我们一起来看看雅思口语考试内容是什么吧。

雅思考试口语第一个部分:introduction and interview部分

introduction andinterview我们主要可以分为;两个部分解答:在开始的时候,考官会问你一些基本的问题,主要是一些关于身份的问题,可能会问你:名字是什么,看你的证件吗等等简单的问题,这个过程之后就会正式进入到这个所谓interview的部分。interview的部分是关于基本的一些生活相关的问题的一些口语的交流,可能会问到关于你学业,你的生活,你的家乡,你的兴趣爱好这样方面的问题,这整个过程持续时间大约是四到五分钟的时间。

雅思考试口语第二部分:Personal long-turn部分

在这个部分,学生会拿到一张写着题目的纸张,这个题目主要是关于人,或者一个地方,或者是某件事情,还有一些提示性的问题。根据这这个问题,雅思考试的考生会有一分钟的准备时间和两分钟的考试时间,考生要把这自己准备的一段话进行阐述,这段话的内容必须围绕刚刚给出的题目进行,也可以适当延伸一下。

2015年雅思口语机经重点复习题目-立即下载

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雅思考试口语第三部分:Two-way discussion部分

这个部分和第一部分有类似的东西,主要是以问答的形式出现,考官会抛出一些问题,这些问题是和第二部分的内容比较相关的,涉及的主要层面是关于社会、自然、生态之类的,内容比第一部分相对深入很多,词汇量的要求也会大一些,这个持续时间是四五分钟的样子。

整场雅思考试口语部分会在十一到十四分钟之间,是所有考试时间里面最短的一个项目。很多考生就会问,这么短的时间,考官如何检验出真正的水平呢?雅思考试的口试部分到底是怎么在评分的呢?接下来我们就说说所谓的口语考试的评分标准。

雅思考试口试部分的评分标准有这样的四项:

A、Fluency and coherence,流利度和相关性

B、Lexical resource,词汇量

C、Grammatical range and accuracy,所谓的语法的范畴和我们的所谓的什么,准确度

D、Pronunciation,发音

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解析雅思口语考试内容

关于雅思口语考试内容同学们在准备考试之前也是需要进行了解,那么备考雅思口语考试的话其主要内容都体现在哪些方面呢,下面本文就为各位同学们讲解雅思口语考试内容主要都有哪些吧。 雅思口语考试第一个部分:introduction and interview部分

introduction andinterview我们主要可以分为;两个部分解答:在开始的时候,考官会问你一些基本的问题,主要是一些关于身份的问题,可能会问你:名字是什么,看你的证件吗等等简单的问题,这个过程之后就会正式进入到这个所谓interview的部分。interview的部分是关于基本的一些生活相关的问题的一些口语的交流,可能会问到关于你学业,你的生活,你的家乡,你的兴趣爱好这样方面的问题,这整个过程持续时间大约是四到五分钟的时间。

雅思口语考试第二部分:Personal long-turn部分

在这个部分,学生会拿到一张写着题目的纸张,这个题目主要是关于人,或者一个地方,或者是某件事情,还有一些提示性的问题。根据这这个问题,雅思考试的考生会有一分钟的准备时间和两分钟的考试时间,考生要把这自己准备的一段话进行阐述,这段话的内容必须围绕刚刚给出的题目进行,也可以适当延伸一下。

雅思口语考试第三部分:Two-way discussion部分

这个部分和第一部分有类似的东西,主要是以问答的形式出现,考官会抛出一些问题,这些问题是和第二部分的内容比较相关的,涉及的主要层面是关于社会、自然、生态之类的,内容比第一部分相对深入很多,词汇量的要求也会大一些,这个持续时间是四五分钟的样子。

整场雅思考试口语部分会在十一到十四分钟之间,是所有考试时间里面最短的一个项目。很多考生就会问,这么短的时间,考官如何检验出真正的水平呢?雅思考试的口试部分到底是怎么在评分的呢?接下来我们就说说所谓的口语考试的评分标准。

以上主要就是针对四部分雅思口语考试内容为各位同学们做的简单介绍,雅思口语考试内容主要包括了哪些方面呢,相信通过上文的讲解各位同学们也是能够对雅思口语考试相关内容有所了解。

雅思口语考试内容分析

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雅思口语考试内容分析

对于雅思口语考什么,有哪些题型以及测试要点等有些同学们都不是很清楚,口语考试是一对一进行,考官会首先就考生的一些个人问题发问,并选择话题加以展开。雅思口语考试内容是什么呢?这是大家比较关心的问题,雅思口语是中国人薄弱的环节,下面前程百利雅思小编为大家介绍了雅思口语考试内容是什么,希望对大家有所帮助。

雅思口语考试内容是什么?雅思口语考试问题的回答过程中,通常出现的情况就是在没有任何时间思考的情况下,考生很多时候的回答都是第一反应。小马留学认为这样的答案内容并不是说不好, 只是说缺乏创意,而且很多学生都会说一样的内容。

雅思口语考试内容是什么?请看以下介绍:

雅思口语考试内容第一部分,introduction and interview部分

那什么叫introduction and interview呢,主要我们分成两个部分在这个小项里面,第一呢,在一开始考官会问你一些最基本的,确定你身份的问题,比如说他会问道,你的名字是什么?我可以看你的证件吗?Can I have your ID please- 然后在这个过程之后呢,当确定了身份之后就会正式进入到这个所谓interview的部分了。

interview的部分呢他会考察一些你关于基本的一些生活相关的问题的一些口语的交流,比如说他会问到关于你学业,你的生活,你的家乡,你的兴趣爱好这样方面的问题,那整个第一部分我们持续的时间是四到五分钟的时间。

雅思口语考试内容第二部分,Personal long-turn部分

那在第一部分的这个交流之后呢我们就会进到我们所谓的第二部分,这个Personal long-turn,这个Personal long-turn来说,很多学生可能不太知道这是什么意思,那我们会拿到一张A4大小的纸,那在这个纸上你会有一个题目,那可能是关于人,或者一个地方,或者一个事情,或者一个东西的一个题目,那下面你会有一些提示的问题,根据这个问题,考生有一分钟的时间去做准备,然后两分钟的时间咱们需要自己来喋喋不休的来说一个整段的话,那这段话呢我们必须围绕着我们这个题目所给出的内容来回答。同学们也可以相应的做一些展开。

雅思口语考试内容第三部分,Two-way discussion部分

那我们在这个第二部分的Personal long-turn之后呢,我们进入到这个第三部分,叫Two-way discussion的部分,那什么叫Two-way discussion呢,实际上形式上来说它是第一部分的一个类似的东西,它是以问答的形式出现,考官会抛出一些问题,这些问题在内容上呢我们通常是跟第二部分你回答的这个问题有关系的,那么这个Two-way discussion主要讨论一些比如说社会、自然生态以及各个方面的这些内容,而它的问题难度呢比第一部分相对要深很多,词汇量的要求也会大一些,那这个时间我们也持续在

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四到五分钟之间。那整个口语考试我们在这里可以看到,我们只有十一到十四分钟。

以上就是雅思口语考试内容是什么的相关内容介绍,雅思口试对于很多应试的考生来说还是一个很头疼的项目哦,没关系,语言能力都是靠多加练习,多听多说自然就会有所提高。雅思口语考试内容是什么必须要提前了解,在备考中养成良好的学习习惯。更多内容请持续关注前程百利雅思频道!

托福口语考试内容:托福口语考什么

托福口语考试内容:托福口语考什么

为了帮助大家熟悉托福口语考试内容,高效备考托福考试,新东方在线托福网为大家带来托福口语考试内容:托福口语考什么一文,希望对大家托福备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线托福网!

国外学习英语教学的课程时,您将在课堂内外锻炼您的英语技能。这也是为什么我们今天要进一步了解口语考试的原因,口语考试是为了测试您在真实的校园环境中用英语有效沟通的能力。测试在计算机上进行,考生佩戴耳机和麦克风,对话内容将被记录下来并由来自世界各地的三至六位不同的评分员进行评估以确保得出公正可靠的成绩。

口语部分概述

时限:20 分钟

问题:6 个任务任务:对一个您熟悉的话题发表意见:根据阅读和听力进行表述。

独立的口语任务

题 1:个人倾向

在给定的类别中选择一个类别进行表述并提出理由;例如,您参加的事件、活动及地点。

题 2 :选择

在两个完全相反的行为或行动中做出选择并提出理由。

综合任务

题 3:匹配与解释

将给您一小段有关校园问题的短文以及一段针对该问题的评论录音。您需要结合您阅读的短文背景对说话者的观点进行总结。

题 4:通用/专用

一小段短文对一个学术术语、流程或观点进行广义的定义。您将听到一段针对该话题的演讲的摘录,并要求将阅读和听力短文中的重要信息表述出来。 题 5:问题/解决方案

您将听到一段有关学生情况的简短对话,并应要求表述您如何解决对话中的问题。

题 6:总结

您将听到一段课堂演讲的摘录,并应要求对演讲进行总结以测试您对话题的理解程度。今天的话题到此为止,但是请别忘了以后再来浏览帖子,以了解有关口语问题类型的更多细节。

以上就是新东方在线托福网为你带来的托福口语考试内容:托福口语考什么,更多精彩敬请关注新东方在线托福网。

高考英语口试

高考英语口试的目标是测试考生的语言口头表达能力,其中包括朗读能力、会话能力、描述能力和表达思想的能力。

 一、高考英语口试由下列五大题组成:

(1)朗读????? 10%

(2)快速应答? 10%

(3)情景提问? 20%

(4)谈话????? 30%

(5)看图说话? 30%

二、各大题如何准备

 1.朗读

Part 1 Reading aloud (10%)

这部分称为Passage reading。你将从荧屏上看到你所要读的文章。你可以有一分钟时间准备,然后,只用30秒钟朗读该短文。你也许会认为30秒钟读完这篇文章是不可能的,因此你就会加快速度,抢时间,将文章读完。其实,这是错误的判断。你应该按正常的速度朗读,按规定的朗读要求读短文。

本大题的考查要求:朗读短文测试学生的语音基础、意群停顿、语气转换、自然流畅的连读、失爆等朗读技巧。

现将短文朗读考查要求分析如下:

(1)语音的基础问题。根据我本人的学习体会与教学中的观察,中国学生如果对英语国际音标中下列四个元音的发音掌握得较好,则其他元音音素的掌握也不会有大问题。这四个元音是/i:,i,e, /。少数学生由于在初学时没有掌握其发音的要领,以致他们到了高考口试中有些读音与标准的要求相差甚远。有人甚至将/i:,i/分别误读为汉语的“衣”,“一”。在发/e/时口型过大。如say的过去式said,这里字母组合ai应读/e/。不少学生错读成/?/,这样said读成了/s?d/,成了sad(形容词“悲伤的”)。又如say的读音应是/sei/,而says的读音是/sez/,这里字母组合ay的读音应是/e/。此外,the的读音也是一个问题。大家都清楚字母组合th的读音是/θ/或/ /。发这两个音素最重要的“技巧”就是将舌尖放在上下牙齿之间(并轻触上下齿),然后,送气,这种发音方法在汉语的发音中是没有的。但由于平时朗读时马虎了事,养成了这种错误习惯。

(2)意群和停顿。句子可以按照意思和结构分为若干段,每一段称为一个意群,英语中称为sense group.每一个意群有其特殊的意义。在朗读每一篇短文前,你应找准意群。这样你可以在说话和朗读时,意群和意群之间可梢作一定的停顿,也可以在此处换气,使意思表达更为清楚。如果你停错地方,你的“听众”就听不懂。这也就是你经常听到老师评论说“读破句”,英语称为broken English。你还须注意在同一意群中各个单词之间应一口气念完而不可停顿。同时,意群和意群之间根据需要而停顿,也不是非停顿不可。

朗读样题:

A four-year-old girl / is lying / in the arms of a doctor. //She has just become motherless.// Her pink clothes are bloodied / and her eyes stare at something / only she can s

ee. //She has suffered from a bombing / near her home / in southern Iraq.

(3)语调:主要有升调与降调两种。升调一般用于句首状语和一般疑问句,在一个完整句子中各并列成分在最后一个并列成分前者应用升调。如:I have three English books↗,two Chinese dictionaries↗and five pens↘.

降调用在陈述句句尾和特殊疑问句中,尤其应注意的是一般疑问句的回答。如:Do you have a map in your hand↗?该疑问句的肯定回答:Yes↘,I do↘.这里的Yes,必须是降调,I do也必须是降调。

(4)连读与失爆。连读较容易掌握。在一个意群中,将前一个单词最后的辅音与后一个单词开头的元音连在一起读。如:half an hour, ran out of the room, not at all。

 而失爆是朗读中较难掌握的一种技巧。当相邻两个爆破音在一起时,往往给前面一个爆破音留一个位置,但不爆破,稍停随即发后面的爆破音,这种现象称为失去爆破。如:hot bath,(加下划线的字母不发音)the next day,/a good deal of, I dont believe.等。

试读样题Part One请注意用正常速度朗读,并练习上面提到的一些朗读技巧及基本功。

    2.快速应答

   Part 2 : Quick Responses. (10%)

主要测试考生对功能性语言的掌握。考生将从耳机里听到5个句子,要求考生对这5个句子进行快速应答。每个句子的答题时间为5秒。

首先学生应搞清这题不是回答问题,而是对你所听到的句子作恰当的反应。这部分的难点是没有情景提示,考生必须在听到句子后的瞬间判断这句子应在什么情景下使用,其前后呼应的句子应该是什么。然后,再确定一个正确的应答句。

如你听到的句子为:“How are you going to station?”你会想到这是两人相遇时,一人要去火车站,另一人想知道对方去火车站的方式。你的应答句应是:“I am going to station by bus/by taxi/on foot…”

在听到考题时,应搞清这个句子的类型:是一般疑问句,还是特殊疑问句;是陈述句,还是祈使句。对特殊疑问句应抓住:第一个词——疑问词,这决定了你的应答句的内容。第二个词——助动词,它决定了你的应答句的时态或语态。当然,其他的词也起了不同的作用,但相比之下,这两个词所提供的信息尤为重要。如上述例句:“How are you going to station?”第一个词how告诉了你应答句的内容有关“方式”——去车站的方式。第二个词“are you going to”告诉了你的应答句应用be going to作动词谓语。

  再如:“Dont forget to post the letter for me!”这是一句祈使句。情景是:别人请你做事,但又担心你会忘记。你的应答句要告诉对方“我不会忘记的”。由于汉语思维的干忧,不少学生会

讲成:“Yes, I wont.”大家都知道,这是错句。既然你不会忘记做某事,那就应该是否定形式。这样你的应答句就必须是:“No,I wont.”

  考点:

1. Greeting

How do you do? ==> How do you do?

What’s up? ==> Not much!/Nothing much!

2. asking introduction

Hi, Tom, this is Mary, my best friend. ==> Hi, nice to meet you!

3. saying good-bye

Good –bye, Tom! ==> Good- bye, Mr. Li!

4. making requests and giving instruction 请求

Hello, may I speak to Mr. Johnson, please! ==> Speaking/ Hold on please.

Behave yourself! ==> Yes I will.

Don’t sit on that chair. It is broken! ==> Lucky you warned me./ Thank goodness you reminded me.

Smoking is a bad habit. You had better quit smoking. --> Thank you for your advice. I will try.

5. giving thanks

Be careful! The floor is so slippery. ==> Thank you for your advice!

Congratulations (on…) ! ==> Thank you!

It is very nice of you to show me around the school. ==> It is my pleasure.

6. asking for permission

I really must go now. ==> Why so soon!/ Can you stay a little longer?

Let me have the photo, would you? ==> Sure, here you are.

7. showing agreement or disagreement

The movie is OK, but I don’t like the action. ==> I agree with you.

I like summer because I can wear lightweight clothes. ==> So do I.

8. giving invitations

We’ ll have a dance on Sunday. I hope you can make it. ==> Yes, I can./ Sorry, I’m afraid I can’t.

What about going for a walk? ==> That is a good idea!

I have two tickets for the concert, wanna go with me? --> Sure, why not?

9. asking questions 问题

What’s the matter with you, Tom? You look pale. ==> I have a cold.

Where have you been? I haven’t seen you in class all week.==>Oh, I caught a cold, so I had to stay in.

Can you tell me how to get to the nearest bank? ==> Turn right at the first crossing. You cannot miss it.

10. expressing good wishes

Good luck! ==> Thank you!

Have a nice weekend! ==> Thank you! The same to you!

11. requesting and offering help

Is there anything I can do for you? ==>No, thanks.

12. making apologies

I am sorry that I forget to return the book to you. ==> Never mind!

  3.情景提问

Part 3: Question Raising (20%)

主要测试考生对所给情景中不同信息进行提问的能力。

考生在屏幕上看到,同时从耳机里听到所给的两个情景,考生假设自己正处于此情景之中,根据要求对每个情景分别提两个问题,每两个问题中至少有一个特殊疑问句(注意:只要求提问,不用回答或作任何解释。)每个情景的提问时间为10秒。

Ask 2 questi

ons about each situation given below, at least one special question.既然题目中给你情景,必须从所给的情景中搞清几个要素:这个情景的主角是谁,谈话的对象是谁,该情景发生的时间、地点及内容等信息。在英语中也就是when, where, whats happening, whom are you talking to…?

考生从屏幕上看到和耳机里听到的情景:

例1.Your friend invites you to his birthday party, which is to be held in a restaurant.

分析Your friend is having a birthday party.

You are invited to the party, but you dont know the exact date or time. Besides, you need to know where the restaurant is.

 The possible 2 questions will be:

(1) Thank you very much for your invitation. But could you please tell me where the restaurant will be?

(2)When shall we be there?

例2.Something is wrong with your mobile phone. You go to the shop to have it repaired.

分析:This is a very typical situation happened in a repairing store.

结论:The possible 2 questions will be:

(1) How much shall I pay for the repairing?

(2) Shall I come back to pick it up tomorrow?

注意:(1)考生所提的两个问题其中一个必须是特殊疑问句。

(2)如果考生所提出的两个问题的答案是同一个内容,则其中一个问题不得分。

例如:针对例2的情景,考生的2个问题:

(1)When shall I come back to pick it up?

(2)Shall I come back to pick it up tomorrow?

这样2个句子中的一个不得分。

More Practice:

1. Ask the way to Jingjiang Hotel.

Where is the ….?// How can I get to …? //Do you know …?

2. Ask your classmate about the maths lesson/ test you’ve missed.

What did the teacher teach?// Is … difficult (or easy)?

3. Ask your friend about sth. about sports.

What’s your favourite sport?// Do you like…?

4. You are persuading Mike to go to a concert on Saturday evening?

Will you go with me?// Why not go with me?

5. Ask your teacher how to learn English well.

How can I learn English well? // Can you give me some tips on how to learn English?

6. At a restaurant /snack bar, you are discussing what to eat?

Would you like …?// What would you like…? //Which would you prefer, … or …?

7. Ask Peter about a photo of his family.

Who is the man? // Is he/ she your…?

8. Ask Alice where she lives.

Where do you live?// Is your home far from here?

9. At a supermarket/shop, you ask customers questions.

Can I help you?// What would you like?

10. Ask questions to your friend who is in hospital.

Are you feeling well?// When can you leave hospital?

11. At a booking office of Shanghai Railway Station, you ask a man inside questions.

Do you still have the tickets to Xi’an?// How much is the ticket?

12. Ask about the postage of a packet to the U.S.

Whats the postage?// How long does it take to get to the U.S.?

13. You want to know how Chinese people celebrate the Chinese

New Year.

How do Chinese people celebrate the Chinese New Year?// What do you do on the Chinese New Year?

14. Ask your friend John about the journey from Britain.

Did you enjoy the journey?// What do you think of…?

15. You want to know your friend’s life in Europe.

Did you enjoy the life in Britain?// What do you think of…?

16. You’d go and buy a TV set to decorate the room. You ask the shop assistant.

How much is the TV set? // Which one is better?

17. Peter has a toothache and wants to make an appointment to see Dr. Brown. Now the nurse answers the phone and asks questions.

Can you come on Wednesday morning? // When can you come?

18. You are shopping for a pair of shoes at a shoe store. She asks the assistant.

How much is …?// Which pair is better?

19. You and Jackie are discussing which TV program to watch on a Saturday night.

Which program do you like? // Do you like cartoons (or plays)?

20. Your class will have picnic. Ask your classmates’ opinion of it.

What’s your opinion?// Shall we go together?

21. Your friend looks excited. Ask him sth.

What’s happened?//Why are you so excited?

22 Your friend has studied in university for a year. Ask him questions about the law.

What do you think of …?//Do you like life there?

23. You want to buy an English reference book. Ask questions to the shop assistant.

Where can I find an English reference book?//Can you help me?

24. Your friend received some stamps from an Australian teacher. Ask two questions about the teacher.

Is he your former English teacher?//Where is he working now? /What else is he interested in?

25. One more underground line has been built recently in Shanghai.

How many stops does this new line have?//Where is the terminal of this new line?

Can we go to Pudong by this new line?

26.You lost your keys. Ask your deskmates two questions.

Have you seen my keys? Can you help me to find it?

27 You are asked to give a speech. You want to know more about the audience and the speech.

Are there many people there?/ What time will it begin?

28. Your friend is planning to go abroad. Ask him two questions.

When will you go? /How long will you stay there?

29.You are going to buy a birthday present for your mum. You go to your friend for advice.

What present should I buy for my mum? / May I buy some flowers?

30.You friend has just come back from Japan ,and you are interested in Japanese food.

Do you like Japanese food? What do you think of Japanese food?

31.You are talking about Thanksgiving Day with an American student on your school campus.

Can you tell me sth about Thanksgiving Day?/What do Americans do on that day?

32.The Students’ Union needs some volunteers to help the old in the neighborhood.

What should I do there?/ Can you tell me their address?

33.One of your classmates has made great improvement in spoken English. Ask him questions.

How did you learn spoken English?// Did you go to an evening school?

34.You’re not clear ab

out today’s homework. You ask your classmate questions.

What’s today’s homework? Do we have maths exercises?

35.An astronaut gives a lecture in your school. After the lecture, you ask him questions.

Would you come to our school again ?// May I have your signature?

36.Your classmate has just played a basketball match against another school. You ask questions.

Did you win the match?//What’s the score?

37 You have heard your classmate has published short article in the students’ English newspaper.

What’s your article about?//How much did you get for the article?

38 A teacher will come to teach your class .Ask your class teacher about him.

Is he a young teacher?//Does he come from another school?

39. One of your classmates won the first prize in a maths contest. Ask him questions.

Was the maths contest difficult?//When did you take part in the contest?

40.You are going to invite a friend of yours to have dinner with you. You ask questions.

Can you come tomorrow?//Are you free tomorrow?

41. Next Wednesday is your teacher’s birthday. You want to do something for her.

You ask your classmate questions.

Will you buy a present for her?// Should we go and visit her?

42. You’ve just bought a new TV set and want it to be delivered to your home .You ask the shop assistant questions.

When can I get the TV set?// Are you sure of my address?

43. Jack has just received a scholarship from one of the universities in Australia.

Is it easy to get a scholarship?// How much did you get?

44. Your friend watched the musical ‘the Phantom of the Opera’? Ask him for opinion.

Did you enjoy it?/ How much is your ticket?

45.Your classmate has just bought a new bicycle. Ask her questions.

How much is your bicycle? //What’s the brand of it?

46. Your desk mate is absent for school today. Ask your class teacher questions about it.

Is she ill?// Can she come tomorrow?

47. Your cousin looks excited because this is her first time to take a plane.

Why are you so excited?.// Are you afraid to take a plane?

48. You are working as a receptionist at a hotel. Someone calls to book a room, Ask questions.

Jingjiang Hotel. Can I help you?//When will you arrive?

49. Your friend is inviting you to see a film. Ask him two questions.

What film is it? / What time does it begin?

50. You have a friend who is working in a company. Ask him two questions.

Where is the company?// What is your job engaged in?

4.谈话

Part 4: oral composition (30%)

考生将在屏幕上看到,同时从耳机里听到谈话的题目。话题通常与第三部分的短文内容有关,但无须记忆短文内容,要求考生对所给的话题准备60秒,谈话时间60秒,谈话所用句子至少6句。

根据05年口试情况,考生在屏幕上看到题目的同时还会看到与其配套的录像,这是为了给考生提供更多的信息。考生可以根据情况采用与否。

在这一部分,你将根据所给的题目作一分钟

准备,并且用一分钟时间谈这个题目。这部分考核的内容实际上就是一篇口头小作文——oral composition。既然它被称为Composition,就必须按段落写作的要求来准备。(1)从structure来考虑,文章必须要有beginning, body and conclusion。在beginning里要开门见山地提出该短文的topic sentence.在topic sentence中必须含有关键词。有了关键词后,则在body部分可以根据关键词写出support details。这是全部短文的重点,而且篇幅在全文中比例最大。如果全文只有10个句子,那么,这部分应有7~8句。最后一部分是conclusion,在结尾部分中你应再次重申你的观点,但不能将主题句作简单的重复。

第二个要讲明的是:短文必须有内容。如题目为An unforgettable after Class Activity的短文,那就应该描述一个具体的活动。使评卷老师听到你讲的短文后,感觉到你参加的活动确实吸引人,令人难忘。不能靠堆积许多形容词,而没有一个具体的情节来证实你讲的活动让人难忘,这个topic学生写得最多的内容是下乡、学军、学农等。

例文:It was a very hot night. We tried to go to sleep, but I couldnt, because there was no air conditioning in our bedroom. Besides, we hated to hear the noise of the flying mosquitoes around us. Some of us had to give up sleeping. They went out to sit in the yard, chatting. Some others had a good idea. They slept in turns while others did the fan to keep them cool and the mosquitoes away. What a fantastic idea it was! Though we didnt have enough sleep, anyway we did have some sleep.

如果在你的短文叙述中有这样有情节、有内容的材料,你的得分就不会低。

高考口试话题参考范文

1.The Problem of Pollution

Pollution has become a serious problem facing everyone in the world .Many chimneys of factories often send poisonous smoke directly into the air and motorcars giving off heavy smoke can be seen everywhere in the streets. The smoke really does harm to people .But luckily, more and more people have made laws to stop the pollution. With the effort of everybody, I’m sure that the air of the city will become purer and purer, and our life will become better and better.

2. Books --our Best Friends

We can get much information from all kinds of books. For example, you can learn how to do some cooking from the books on cooking. Of course, we can cook delicious food with the help of books. If we want to go traveling, but we have no time, then we can buy a book on travel first. In a word, books can help us to search and study all the things we want to learn. A good book gives us many useful things just as a friend does. We should remember the proverb, “Books, like friend, should be few and well chosen.” During the time we are growing up, books are always our best friends. I like reading books.

3. My Favorite Sp

ort

In my spare time, I always play table tennis. That is my favorite sport. When I was young, I used to be in poor health. I still remember my father took me to the stadium to learn how to play table tennis for the first time. Since then, I have been fond of it. Now I often play with my classmates after class. I like playing table tennis because it takes a little room and it is also exciting like football, basketball and so on. By playing table tennis with my classmates, we build up our health and become stronger so that we can study well. Though I am still not very good at it, I like it.

4. The Reason Why We Learn English

English is an international language and it has many speakers. English plays a very important part in our life. To take the Internet for an example, most of the information appears in English, so if you don’t know English, how can you find the information you need? Also, in our daily life, many newspapers and magazines are written in English, and books included. If we don’t know English, we will be at a loss for any information, and we will lose our best friends----books. Also, international meetings and businesses need English as a communication. From the above, we can see English is really very important and that’s why we need to learn it well.

5. How to Learn English Well?

Now China has entered WTO, so English is more important to us students than before. Since English isn’t my native language, I have much trouble in learning it. Spoken English and listening comprehension are always difficult to me. So I should practice my English every day. First, I will try my best to find every chance to communicate with people who speak English, and read more as often as I can. Second, I should learn English by means of television or radio. And third, I will read more books and magazines written in English. I believe if I follow the outlines above, I can learn my English well.

6. The advantages and Disadvantages of the Internet

Net surfers in different countries can share interesting knowledge and the latest information. Besides, Internet has provided a major opportunity to buy and sell goods. What is more, people get medical help or even vote on the Internet. Its advantages seem countless. However, there are some problems too. The Internet makes people passive and people may find that World Wide Web turns into World Wide Wait. What is worse, some children have access to the scenes of violence and sex. Apart from these, it can be affected by viruses and hackers. With proper management of the Internet people ought to experience more fruits of information revolution.

7. Living in the City or in the Country?

Compared with living in the city, I prefer to live in the country. Several reasons can support my opinion. First, with the development of industry, the city has been seriously polluted. Air pollution and water pollution make our daily life more and more uncomfortable, and it will do harm to our h

ealth. Secondly, living in the country provides a better sight. The green tree, grasses and large fields make the country much more beautiful and the air much fresher. So I like living in the country instead of living in the city.

8. The Importance of Helping Each Other

In my opinion, people should help each other as often as possible. Whenever someone is in trouble, we should try our best to help him. Of course, when you are in danger, other people will help you. Helping each other is the fine quality of our Chinese. If you like to help others, you can not only make more friends but also do more good to your country. Nowadays, people everywhere raise money for the Hope Project, because many people need help. As a Chinese, we should try our best to help the poor and the disabled. I like helping others, which makes my life more meaningful.

9. Doing Something for the 2010 Expo

As all know, the 2010 Expo will be held in Shanghai. It will have a significant effect on the future of China. As a result, we should do something for the Expo. First, we should study hard, especially learning English well. In 2010, a great number of people all over the world will come to China. If we learn English well, we can understand and communicate with the foreigners more easily and it helps us to be closer to them. Second, we should pay attention to our environment to keep our country beautiful. So it can leave a deep impression on the foreigners. I’m sure that the Expo to be held in Beijing will be successful.

10. Eating in Restaurant or at Home

More and more people today choose to eat in restaurants rather than at home. First eating in restaurants, we have a wide selection of food. Some dishes are too complicated to prepare at home. Second, in restaurants, we can relieve ourselves from hard work. To prepare a good meal at home is by no means an easy job. It involves buying good food from the market, washing, cooking and washing dishes etc. However, when we eat in restaurants, all the trouble is gone. Finally, when we dine in restaurants, we dine like a king or queen, while at home, we have to do everything on our own.

11. My family

I have a happy family. There are three persons in my family --- Mum, Dad and I. we are not tish, however, we love each other. Like other families, we sometimes argue for something. But it does not matter, and we live a happy life. My parents have their own business, and I have to study in school. Though we are all busy, we often chat, play and work together in our spare time. Everything is going well in my family. Dad always says: good work is supported by a happy family. I think so. I love my family and the life will be always appreciated.

12. My favorite Color

My favourite colour is blue. Though people always think bleu indicates melancholy, I still love it very much. The color of the sky is blue. I wish that I could fly in the blue sky like birds. I like the sky, so blue becomes my favourite color. It l

ooks gentle and doesn’t make us excited. Looking at it, we can feel comfortable and be in a good mood. Besides, the color of the sea is the same as the sky. It is blue, when I look at the blue color I imagine I’m walking on the beach. So blue becomes my favorite color.

13.Something about computer

Today, computer is popular among the young people. There are several factors leading to the phenomenon. First, a computer is fast and never makes a mistake while people are too slow and full of mistakes sometimes. Thus, computers can make our work more efficient. Second, a computer can do a lot of everyday work instead of people. So it is widely used in factories, hospitals, banks and almost everywhere. Finally, a computer give us a lot of convenience, pleasure and knowledge, it comes as no surprise that computer is popular among people.

14. Do You Like Traveling?

I like traveling, especially traveling around the world. There are two main reasons for my choice. For one thing, by traveling, we can enjoy ourselves by visiting a lot of places of interest. Such as the Great wall in china, the Fu Ji Mountain in Japan, the golden beaches in Singapore, the Eiffel Tower is France and so on. In doing so, we are exposed to different histories, cultures, customs and civilizations. And this can widen our scope of knowledge. For another, traveling can relieve the stress of our busy life and bring pleasure to us. So whenever you feel unhappy, try to have3 a travel. Since traveling can give us so many benefits, it comes as no surprise that I like traveling.

15. What Will You Do When Seeing a Thief?

  I think we should deal with such a situation in different ways. If I an alone when I see the thief stealing and the thief takes something dangerous with him, the best way is to dial 110. Because keeping myself safe is also important. If I am staying with my friends when I see the thief stealing, maybe we will choose to shout at the thief at once. Uniting many people’s efforts to catch the thief, I think, is the best way to deal with the situation. And I think we should never be frightened but we should be very clever and brave at such times.

16. What Will You Do When Meeting with Floods?

  Our world is changing every minute, and we can not predict what will happen to us. If we meet with floods unfortunately, what shall I do? First, I think I should be very calm in order to be away from the danger. Second, I must try my best to help the old, the young, and even the disabled. Last but not the least, we should also prepare some food and clothes that are necessary in our daily life. A flood may be terrible and dangerous, but on the other hand, a flood can make you become brave and conquer any difficulty.

17. The Hope Project

  When we are sitting in the classroom, do you know how many other children can’t go to school? They are forced to leave school for lack of money. So we should help them in order to let them go back to school. But

as a student, what can we do for the Hope Project? It’s easy to answer the question. Now, we have more and more pocket money. We can save some for the Hope project. And also, we can donate our pencils, pens and books to the children who can’t go to school. We can make friends with them and encourage them not to lose heart. If everyone gives his love to the Hope Project, our society will become more beautiful.

18. Something About Examinations

  We have many exams in our study life. Perhaps many people will say they don’t like them. But in my opinion, I like exams for the following reasons. First, having an exam will test your level of your study. I think this is the best way to have a clear picture of what I have learned. Second, having an exam will add to my confidence. If I get food marks in an exam, I will become happy to make more efforts in my further study. If I fail, I will find out the reason to improve my study. So I like to be examined, that is to say, I like3 examinations.

19. Something About Advertisements

  We can find advertisements everywhere nowadays. When you are watching an interesting TV poly, your attention may be interrupted by the advertisements. When you read newspapers, you may find nearly half of the pages covered with advertisements. I like advertisements like many young people. First, advertisements can enable people to make decisions quickly, which will save a lot of time. Second, advertisements can also make people know more products of the same kind, and then we will have more chances to buy the best goods. In short, I think advertisements have more advantages than disadvantages.

20. The Importance of Enjoying Good Health

  As the proverb says ‘health is above wealth, and health is happiness.’ It’s very important to enjoy good health. Anyone who doesn’t have good health can’t live happily. How to enjoy good health? In my opinion, there are at least four ways to do so. First, eat properly, be sure to have rice, vegetables, meat, fruit, egg and milk every day. Second, have a good rest. Enjoying a good sleep is also very important. Third, have sports and exercise every day, because life lies in sports. Last but not least, keep yourself relaxed. If you can follow all the directions outlined above, you are sure to enjoy good health.

21. Money and Happiness

  Some people think that if they have money, they will be happy. I am afraid not. For example, anyone who is not healthy will not be happy, though he has a lot of money. Some rich men have few true friends, why? Perhaps they think that they are different from ordinary people, and maybe people like their money. When they get much money, they become very strange, their friends turn away from them. At last, those rich men become lonely. Are they happy? The answer is clear. They are not happy. In a word, money can not buy happiness, which is an unchangeable truth.

22. One Child Policy in the Chinese Family

  As we all know, china

has a very large population. But our natural resources are very limited and many people are still very poor, especially in the remote areas. In such a big country, food can not be well supplied to everybody. That’s the reason why our government requires every Chinese family should have one child. In the old society, people had a big family and their children could not be given a good education. However, in the modern society, every family can afford their children a very good education. Only by doing so can the quality of our Chinese be raised. I am strongly in favor of the policy: It’s better to have a child in every family.

23. Teenage Smoking

  There has been an alarming increase in teenage smoking in the past 20 years. This fact has become a question that we must pay attention to. The factors for this case are complex. First, I think curiosity is the main reason. Many youngsters want to experience the pleasure of smoking when they see others doing that, and they also want to have a try, the second factor is also psychological. As the youngsters haven’t realized the harm of taking up this habit, they only think that smoking shows maturity. They want to be regarded as the grown-ups through smoking. For all these reasons, it comes as no surprise that teenage smoking has become a serious social problem.

24.The Value of Time

  A proverb says:“ Time is money.” But in my opinion, time is even more precious than money. Why? Because when money is spent, we can earn it back. However, when time is gone, it will never return. This is the reason why we must value time. It goes without saying that the time we can use is unusually limited. Hence, even an hour is extremely precious. We should make full use of our time to do useful things. As students we must not relax our efforts to engage in our studies so as to serve society and our nation in the future. In a word, we should get into the good habit of saving time. Do not put off what can be done today until tomorrow.

25. Water and Life

  Life depends on water. So water is one of the most important things in our life. However, according to a recent survey we find water dirtier and dirtier, and even polluted by the near by factories. I can hardly imagine what the world would be if we continued to use the polluted water. On the one hand, some kinds of animals are dying out. Fish suffer from the dirty and poisonous water more directly, so we are more likely to find it difficult to see fish swimming in the river then ever before.

26.Children Under Pressure

  In recent years, children’s schoolbags on their back are getting heavier and heavier. Their burden still can’t be relieved in spite of social protests. There are several reasons for my viewpoint. For one thing, most parents want their children to be the top students. Therefore, children are forced to crush their time to study more. For another, children themselves under the pressure want to score high. They also want t

o get a golden opportunity to enter key schools and they think good marks can provide them with success. Obviously, we can see that the problem about the enormous pressure on children won’t be lightened in a short time.

27. How to Solve the Traffic Problem

  When we go out in rush hours, we are always caught in a traffic jam. Many people complain about the heavy traffic which has seriously influenced people’s life. It has become one of the biggest problems in the big cities like Shanghai. Some suggest the government should construct more roads. In this way, the traffic density can be obviously reduced and the buses and cars can go faster. Others suggest that the number of bicycles and cars should be limited, but it is very inconvenient to people. In short, the government should develop proper traffic means and bring more benefit to people in the near future.

28. How to Solve the Energy Crisis

  According to a recent survey, energy crisis has become one of the biggest problems in the world. If we don’t take any measures, sooner or later we will be threatened by the energy crisis. In many countries, people who have realized the problem have suggested the governments should narrow the great drain on the country’s resources when it isn’t necessary enough to save the limited resources. In addition, the inhabitants and factories should limit their serious consumption of energy. The best and effective way, I think, is to develop new energy such as solar energy, unclear energy and other unknown energy.

29. About friends

  A man without a friend is only half a man. In another word, everyone living in the world needs friends. It’s clear that our society is a competitive one, and the great competition between each other often leads to frequent failures, which sometimes even make you feel despaired. However, if you have a true friend, he will relieve you, cast your sadness aside and encourage you to try again bravely. Therefore, choosing a true friend is quite important to us. But a false friend will stay with you when he thinks he can benefit from you and leave you the moment you need him most. In short, friends are to us what sunshine is to life.

30. Competition and Cooperation

How should we understand the relationship between competition and cooperation? For example, there are 11 people in a foot ball team and everyone has its individual skills. They make full use of their own skills to play it, but they can’t play it well and even lose the game. Why does it happen? The main reason is that they don’t cooperate with the other players and work together to win a game. As a matter of fact, this example tells us many things. Competition gets along with cooperation and they can’t be isolated. Cooperation without competition gets along with cooperation and they can’t be isolated. Cooperation without competition will never obtain one’s goals and satisfy one’s needs.

31.TV and Newspaper

With the development o

f science and technology, TV plays an important part in our life. While it is believed that it is convenient for people to get information, I believe that newspapers are the best sources of information. It is true that TV offers us sounds and pictures. The advantages of newspapers are reflected in many aspects. For one thing, news in papers is reported in detail and we can be well-informed about what is happening of the day. For another, reading newspaper can enhance our ability to read and write. Last, we can choose what we like. In short, the newspaper is an effective means of communication.

32. My favourite Job

  My favourite job is to be a doctor. A variety of reasons have led me to choose this occupation. To begin with, there is no doubt that doctors are the emblems of greatness, which means rescuing the dying and the wounded. Second, those who save others from danger will also feel happy. NO more occupation, even high-paid position can equal the opportunity. Last but not the least, the doctors left me a great impress when I was only a child. Since then, they have a high position in my mind. For all these reasons, I want to be a doctor and contributed my love and help to others as often as I can.

33. Private Cars

  Attitudes towards the development of a private car differ widely. As is often pointed out, there are many advantages in possessing a car. It gives us much convenience and comfort. The owner of a car is no longer forced to rely on public transport, and he can go wherever he likes, which certainly offers people great opportunity to enjoy his leisure hours. Others argue that as more and more cars run in the street, much poisonous gas will be given off, polluting the air and do harm to our health. Anyhow, one thing is certain: private cars have changed our life.

34. Should Firecrackers Be Banned?

Generally speaking, setting off firecrackers is a traditional way for Chinese people to celebrate the festivals. I think firecrackers should be banned. There are two reasons for my choice. On the one hand, setting off firecrackers makes a tremendous noise and causes serous air pollution. Sometimes setting off firecrackers is also a big threat to man’s life and property. Many instances are reported that there are many fire accidents caused by firecrackers every year. From the point, it comes as no surprise that we should ban setting off the firecrackers without any hesitation.

35. Unemployment problems

  Unemployment has become a serious problem in society. Perhaps you’ll question why those people have lost their jobs. As is known to us all, in the last these years, more and more talents have folded into cities. The places occupied by low-educated workers will certainly be replaced. Most obviously, many national companies which are composed of hundreds of employees are mow being driven out of business by those private and competitive companies once these companies are broken down, most of the employees may lose t

heir job. I think it more advisable for the laid-off workers to find a new job. They can try looking for suitable job like shop assistants, security guards and so on. In short, the unemployment is not an end but a new beginning.

36. The Relationship between Teachers and Students

As the proverb says, “A great teacher produces a brilliant student.” This is unchangeable truth. In my opinion, a good relationship between teachers and students is becoming more and more important. There are several reasons for my opinion. To begin with, a good relationship between teachers and students can help us achieve the desired effect and it is an ideal pattern to all of us. Another reason is that if teachers and students cooperate well, it does good to both of them. Personal experience shows that in process of teaching an learning, a good relationship between a teacher and a student is important indeed.

37. Reading Classics

  I think we should read some rewarding books such as classics. My argument for this view goes as follows. First, classics picture the wonder and beauty of nature. Another reason is that reading classics develops our sensitivity to beauty and best evokes the feeling of love, peace and understanding. Last, classics can strengthen our character and broaden our range of knowledge. For my part, I consider classics to be among the best of friends. They are the same today as they always were, and they will never change. They do not turn their back on us in times of difficulty.

38. The Relationship between Parents and Children

I think that children should be independent of their parents. It is now universally accepted in society that children should be encouraged to do as much as they can for themselves in order to develop mentally and physically. But only a few of parents today have realized the importance of developing their children’s independence. In our daily lives, parents perform a large number of services for children so that their children have no way to struggle for independence. There is no doubt that if one doesn’t have the ability to be independent; he will have to face many difficulties in his future career.

39. The Problem of Fast Food

   In present- day China, we can find two types of fast food: western and Chinese. Fast food, both Chinese and western has several advantages. In the first place, fast food, as is characterized by its name, is fast. The food is always ready and fresh, waiting for its customers. This saves people’s precious time, and consequently goes well with the tempo of life in modern society. Secondly, fast food restaurants are comfortable. Clean dishes, shiny tables, decent service and light music all stimulate people’s appetite to eat more. As every coin has two sides, fast food also has its disadvantages such as lack of nutrition. Nevertheless, these are minor points compared with its advantages.

40. Generation Gap

Generation gap exists in our life. First, t

he young are now affected more by western civilization, but their parents had to make a living when they were young. The young tend to earn more money to spend, which is contrary to their parents’ thought. Second, the young grow up independent of their parents. They think more for themselves and do not willingly accept the ideas of their elders, they have their own philosophy of life without listening to others. Last but not the least, the young people always think their parents and even the elder stick to old ideas and old ways of life, in short, the generation gap exists in our life, but is not frightening, we should find ways to narrow the gap or bridge it.

 5.看图说话

Part 5 Picture Talk(30%)

考生将在屏幕上看到一组图片和描述图片的第一句话,同时耳机里也听到所给的第一句话,要求考生准备60秒。此时,屏幕先显示要描述的全部图片,然后分别全频显示每一幅图片,最后又回到全部图片的画面。然后考生用所给的第一句话开始描述图片。描述时间为60秒。(注意:考生可根据自己对图片的理解,运用所学的语言,对图片的内容进行描述,描述所用句子至少6句,不包括所给出的第一句话。)

这部分有四幅内容连贯的图片,它有一个主题,也有情节,并提供一个开始句。这个题型考查学生是否能用英语按所给的情景来描述这四幅图片。学生应做到的是内容切题,语言连贯,层次分明,用词得当,句子结构正确,语音语调准确、自然、流畅。字数在120~150左右。

在拿到图片后,应看清图片中的各种提示:除人物外,其他背景资料都应看清楚。往往除了人物外,图片还提供了故事发生的时间、地点等资料。图片下的开始句向学生提供了时态与故事的背景。如样题的图片下的开始句:Tom was a postman. One day he came to a house to deliver a letter.从这句开始我们可以知道本故事使用的时态为一般过去式,人称,Tom,为第三人称。

图片的背景材料上在这户人家的院子里有一条狗,很凶。对Tom紧追不舍。第3幅图片上的信息postman Tom左手牵了一条大狗,右手在付钱。第4幅图片上的信息是postman Tom带了这条买来的大狗又在这户人家的门口投信,这时,……

几个注意事项:

(1)时态问题:如果开始句为一般现在时,图片的叙述也应以现在时为主;如果开始句为现在进行时,则图片以现在进行时与一般现在时为主。

(2)人称问题:如开始句以第一人称描述,则图片的叙述应用第一人称,如果开始句中提供一个名字(第三人称),你对图片的叙述也应用第三人称。

(3)主题:搞清你所看到的图片的内在关系,并且找出这一套图片的内含主题。

(4)语言:如果发生在图片上某一内容的词不掌

握的情况,可以采取间接表达法。也就是通过另外一两个句子来表达与该句相近的意思,这方法仅供你在找不到一个适当的词时才使用。英语的口语应力求简单明了,不要用过长的句子,如主从复合句等书面用语。

以下图片复习参考用:

(1)Xiao Ding wants to know how heavy his cat is, ...

2)As I was walking in the street this morning. ...

口试复习资料1

1

对口高考英语试卷

---高考部第二次月考 --------《英语》试题

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-_-_--_-_--_-_--_-( )1. 拼写 A .listen B .read C. spell D .speak 号---座线( )2.相似的 A. different B. favorite C. good D .similar - -( )3.告诉 A. say B. talk C. speak D .tell -- - -( )4.提醒 A .lose B. forget C. remember D. remind - - --( )5.命令 A. order B. carry C .half D.show -_-_--( )6.大厅 A .library B. classroom C .hall D. office _-_--_-( )7.高兴的 A .please B. pleased C. pleasure D. pleasing _--_--( )8.庆祝 A. happy B .sad C. fool D. celebrate _-_-_--( )9.燃烧 A .burn B. turn C .fall D. if _-_--_-( )10.奇迹 A. shocking B. surprise C. wonder D .knock 号---二、选择填空(2’*10=20’)

考----( )11.I don‘t often____anybooks on Saturday evening. 封 - I often_____some football games.

-_--_-A. read; watch B.look at; see C.read; see D.see; watch _--_-_-( )12.Jim is _____English;I‘m _____American.

-_-_--A. a; the B.the; the C./;/ D.an; a

_-_--_-( )13.These _____want to have some_____for lunch,so they decide to catch many.

_--级--A. Germans;fish B.Germans;fishes C.German;fish D.Germany;fish -班---( )14.Peple like____animals.Because they are____cute.

-- --A. this kind of ;this kind of B.kind of ;kind of - -_-C.this kind of ;kind of D.kind of ,this kind of

_--_-_-( )15.---Speak ____please.because I can‘t hear a word from the back.

-_-_-----Well,it‘s _____enough.

__-密-_-A. loudly;loudly. B.louder;loud C.loud;louder. D.loud;too loud _--_-_-( )16.This kind of computer____too much.Ican‘t afford one.

-_-_--A. takes B.spends C.pays D.costs 名---姓-( )17.I want to go out .You can call me ____13654786544.

----A. in B.to C.for D.at ----( )18.The APEC meeting ____in shanghai last autumn. ---- I hear it ____in different countries every year.

---A.is held;is held B.was held;is held C.was held;has held. D.is held;was held ----( )19.I will phone him as soon as he _____Beijing.

----A. reaches in B.arrives in C.gets D.reaches to

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- ( )20.James with the Greens______the white Tower Park if it ____tomorrow.

A. are going to; isn‘t rain B. are going to ;doesn‘t rain C. is going to;won‘t rain D. is going to ;isn‘t rainy 三、补全对话(2’*10=20’)

1. A:Hey,Ted,can you come to my party on Saturday afternoon?

A:Too bad.How about you,Tina?can you come to my party? C:___22___ A:I am very happy to hear that.Tim ,can you come to my party? A:Saturday afternoon. D:Oh,no,I can‘t.___A:What about you,Wilson? A:That‘s too bad.Oh,maybe next time .What a small party!

1. Sorry,I can‘t. 2. Sure,I‘d love to. 3. When is it? 4. I have to study for a test(other reasons) . 5. I can‘t either. 2.Lilei:The summer vacation is coming.__26___

Hanmei:I‘d like to visit the World Expo Garden in Shanghai.

Lilei:That will be quite exciting.But I hear there‘re a large number of people every day.You have to wait for a long time to visit some wonderful pavilions(展馆).

Hanmei:I know about it .However ,__27__You can see and learn a lot there.

Lilei:You are right.I want to go to the World Expo Garden very much,too.__28___ Hanmei:Next month. Lilei:__29____

Hanmei:Yes ,my parents will take me there. Lilei:__30____

Hanmei:The China Pavilion,of course.Why don‘t you go with us? Lilei:Good idea!I‘ll call you later.see you! Hanmei:See you.

A:When are you going there? B:What‘s your plan for this vacation? C:Which pavilion do you want to visit most? D:I don‘t like to go there.? E.Who are going there? F:I think it‘s worth visiting. G:Is there anybody going with you? 四、阅读理解(2’*10=20’) Passage one

Mrs. Blake teaches English in a large school in the inner area of a big city on the west of coast. Even since she was a young girl,she has wanted to become a teacher. She has taught eight years now and hasn‗t changed her mind. After she graduated from high school, she went on to college. Four years later

, she received her bachelor’s degree (B A) in English and her teaching certificate(证书)。 Then she went to teach in the secondary schools of her state. In the summers, Mrs. Blake takes more classes; she hopes to get a master‘s degree (M A)。 With an MA, she will receive a higher salary and if possible, she hopes to get a doctor’s degree as well. The school day at Mrs. Blake‘s high school, like that in many high schools in the United States, is divided into one hour each. Mrs. Blake must teach five of these periods. During her free period, which for her is from 2 to 3 P.M. , Mrs. Blake must meet with parents, make out examinations, check assignments at all, Mrs. Blake works continuously from the time she arrives at school in the morning till the time she leaves for home late in the afternoon.

31. How long is it since Mrs. Blake graduated from middle school?

A. four years B. eight years C. twelve years D. twenty years

32. According to the article, which is the right order of the degrees a person can receive after going to university?

A. a doctor‗s degree – a bachelor‘s degree – a master‗s degree B. a bachelor‘s degree – a master‗s degree – a doctor‘s degree C. a master‗s degree—a bachelor‘s degree – a doctor‗s degree D. a bachelor‘s degree – a doctor‗s degree—a master‘s degree 33. How many degrees has Mrs. Blake achieved so far? A. one B. two C. three D. none 34. Which of the following sentences is not true?

A. Mrs. Blake teaches in the inner area of big city on the east of the United Sates B. Mrs. Blake has turned her wish of becoming a teacher into reality.

C. Mrs. Blake is still studying in her holidays in order to get higher degrees.

D. The working hours in the school where Mrs. Blake works are similar to those of many other high schools in the states.

35. According to that third paragraph,Mrs. Blake is ______ during the school day. A. lonely B. free C. funny D. busy

Passage Two

Plants are very important living things. Life could not go on if there were no plants. This is because plants can make food from air, water and sunlight. Animals and man cannot make food from air, water and sunlight. Animals get their food by eating plants and other animals. Therefore animals and man need plants in order to live. This is why we find that there are so many plants around us. If you look carefully at the plants around you, you will find that there are two kinds of plants: flowering plants and non-flowering plants. Flowering plants can make seeds. The seeds are protected by the fruits. Some fruits have one seed, some have two, three or four, and some have many seeds. But a few fruits have no seeds at all. An example of a fruit without seeds is the banana fruit. Most non-flowering plants do not grow from seeds. They grow from spores(胚芽)。 Spores are very small. Some spores are so small and light that they can float in the air. We may say that spores are quite the same as seeds. When these spores are all on wet and shady places, they usually grow into new plants. 36. The main idea of the first paragraph is that ______. A. plants are important for life B. plants cannot grow without air C. there are many plants in the world D. we can not live without water 37. Plants can make food from______. A. flower, water and air B. water, sunlight and air C. air, water and soil D. air, sun and light 38. What can we infer(推断) from the passage ?

A. Of all living things animals are most important B. Spores are seeds

C. All fruits of flowering plants have seeds D. Without plants, man will die out 39. This passage may be taken from______. A. a medicine book B. a novel C. a science magazine D. an experiment report 40. The underlined word ―protected‖ in the third paragraph can be replaced by ______.

A. damaged B. polluted C. prevented D. guarded 五、完形填空(1’*10=10’)

It was a sunny day.A city man was driving along a country road with a new wagon(马车)and a beautiful pair of horses.He didn’t pay a lot of attention to where he was going.Pretty soon he that he was lost,but he continued to drive, expecting to refind his way or to him how to get back to the It was a long lonely road.For many hours he kept on driving.When it was almost at night,he saw in a a tall farmer ploughing the land. He stopped his out,“Hello, farmer.” “Hello,yourself,”the farmer replied,.

“Where does the horse go?”he asked without knowing his language errors(错误). “I haven’t seen it go anywhere.It always stays right where it is,”said the farmerstopping his work.

“How far is it to the next town?” said the city man,speaking a little more loudly. “Don’t know.I never measured it,” replied the farmer. By this time the city man was getting “What do you know? You’re the biggest fool I ever saw.”

Finally stopping the farmer turned and looked for a long time at the city man.Then he said,“Maybe I don’t know much.50 I am a fool. But at least I’m not lost!”

41. A. realized B. recognized C. accepted D. received 42. A. miss B. meet C. look D. lose 43. A. town B. country C. capital D. village 44. A. truck B. pile C. field D. store 45. A. strong B. tired C. weak D. tiring 46. A. but B. went on C. stopped D. still

47. A. began B. still C. without D. already 48. A. sad B. lovely C. friendly D. angry 49. A. gladly B. immediately C. in silence D. excitedly 50 A. Really B. Perhaps C. Certainly D. Fortunately 六、汉译英(4’*5=20’)

51.我相信他说的话是真的,但我不能信任他。52.今天早上我碰巧在大街上遇到了一位老朋友。 53.你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大。54.我步行上学大约要花二十分钟时间。 55.上个周末你过得愉快吗?

答题卡

1-5:________________________6-10:________________________11-15:________________________ 16-20:______________________21-25::31-3536-40:________________________41-45:________________________ 46-50:

51:52 : 53: 54: 55:

高考英语口试

一、较复杂问答题目参考:

1.Do you like English? Why/Why not?

Yes,I like English very much. because, I can study British culture 、British history、British custom and so on through lean English .By studying English I can know many things that I cannot study by one language. I enjoy it very much.

2.How do you learn English?

I have many ways to learn English. For example, by listening to English tapes、by Chatting with each other in English、by using MP3,and so on。They are useful for me very much.

3.Do you often play computer games?

Sometimes. When I have time, I will play computer games to relax myself in order to have more energy to study much knowledge. And I can find many interest and knowledge from computer games.

Paper 2

4.Do you think computers are useful? Why?

Yes, of cause. Computers are very useful for us. The computers can give us much knowledge、much pleasure,and give us an open door to other life style 、other ways of thinking、other ways of doing。

5.Do you like sports? Why?

I like sports, of cause. Sports are very useful for me. Because sport can not only make strong in body and in temperament, But also strengthen unity of the students.In a word I can find much pleasure from sport. I like sports.

二、简单问答

1.How do you like the coffee here?

Very nice!

2.Shall I take the bus or the subway to Shanghai Railway Station? I think the bus should be better.

3.Sorry, mum, I have broke a glass.

Thats all right.

4.I think you really need a holiday.

Oh,yes.Ill take your advise.

5.Don`t sit on that chair, It`s broken.

Thank you for your reminding me.

6.Let`s go and have some ice cream.

Yes,why not?

7.What about going to the newly opened shopping center?

Sure, Id love to.

8.You`d better not be late for class again.

Sorry sir.

9.You look tired.What`s the matter with you?

I just caught a bad flu.

10.Make sure that every windows is closed.

Ok, I will

三、复杂问题论述

1.What`s more important, health or wealth? Why?

With the development of our modern society,more and more people put emphsis on the economy.But I think to a person,the most important treasure is their own health.Only have a good health, can you do other work,or you could get nothing!Secondly,the aim of making money is to live a better life. So obviously, all the wealth that people have earned is to improve their health and to live as long as possible.All in all, ones health is more important than wealth.

2.Would you prefer to take public transportation or to own a private car? Id like to choose the first one.There are three reasons for my

choice.Firstly, the apply of fuel has become a serious problem. Many countries has faced with the lack of oil and some other resources.So we should take public transportation to save the resources.Secondly,More and more cars will cause a more and more serious air pollution.Nowadays, all the nations are trying to provide their local people with a clean environment. So I prefer to take the public buses rather than the private cars.

关于大学英语口语教学内容改革的几点思考:从雅思口语考试谈起

  摘要:本文从Bachman的交际语言能力构成模式出发,分析了中国考生在雅思考试中低分的突出问题。并进一步分析了这些问题的产生与当前国内大学英语通用教材之间存在的联系。最后,针对目前大学英语口语教学内容的中的一些不足,作者提出了几点改革的想法和建议。

  关键词:雅思考试;口语教学;教学内容
  雅思考试是英国文化委员会、剑桥大学考试委员会及澳大利亚教育国际开发署联合推出的英语能力水平测试。作为国际水平最高、最具权威性的英语测试,它几乎被所有世界一流大学采用,成为衡量非英语母语国家学生语言能力的标尺。自80年代诞生以来,雅思考试经过20多年的发展已经逐步成为全球范围内最可靠并最有权威的英语水平测试,也成为每年近30万中华学子出国留学深造的必经之路。但考试官方统计数据显示,单就口语这一单项而言,中国学生的平均表现在近五年内都列在世界主要参试国家和地区的最末位置。虽然近三年内成绩有小幅度提高,考生成绩与教育水平发达的非英语国家学生相比还相去甚远,甚至大大低于母语同为汉藏语系的其他东北亚国家。那么中国考生在雅思口语考试中表现出来的语言交际能力究竟有哪些突出问题?这其中的主要原因是什么?针对这些问题,我们如何改革当前大学英语课程教学内容?这也正是我们力图通过本文进行探讨的问题。
  一、中国学生在雅思口语考试中表现出来的语言交际能力的突出问题
  根据剑桥大学考试委员会(ESOL)在雅思考试英文官网上公布的图表,中国考生的平均口语水平(5.3分)对应欧洲语言共同参考框架(CEFR)指标中B1-B2水平段的位置。根据CEFR中对该水平段的能力描述,中国考生能就工作,学校和休闲生活中遇到的标准语音输入的话题作出反应,可以处理在目的语国家出行时遇到的问题,就熟悉或者与个人兴趣相关的话题可以产出简单连续的语篇,能够描述经历和事件,能就态度和计划等给出简单的解释和理由。但是,在谈论与社会、学术和职业生活相关的复杂话题时,考生普遍缺乏灵活有效的应对能力。比如,不能产出组织结构清晰,细节支持充分,连接自然通畅的独立长段语言输出。在熟悉的话题里,中国考生的突出问题主要体现在文本能力(texutal competence)不足上。语言学中,文本能力(texual competence)被定义为对于把话语连接成语篇的常规方法的知识。Halliday 认为这些常规方法(conventions)包括指代,替换,省略,连词和词汇连接手段等。学生在口语输出过程中,往往关注单个句子的正确度,忽略对输出语篇段落内部承接的处理,时空概念的转换和逻辑连接,用心理语言学的术语来说就是缺乏一种“叙述图式”(narrative schema)。这种对语篇组织能力的缺乏也是中国学生在雅思口语考试中失分的主要因素之一。
  那么,中国考生这些突出问题产生的主要原因有哪些呢?考生对考试的重视不足是一个方面。由于国内的英语水平测试中对口语部分的忽略,多数考生在参加雅思口语考试之前从未参加任何正式的英语口语考试。马婷婷(2011)指出考试准备不足,练习量不够,英语口语障碍和备考方法不正确是造成考生低分的主要原因。而我们认为,国内通用的大学英语口语训练教材内容与雅思考试要求之间的差距也是造成考生口语成绩普遍偏低的最突出问题。
  通过对某高校研究生雅思集训班的25名研究生受训对象进行问卷调查,我们发现,78%的学生认为雅思考试的四项评分标准中(发音和流利,连贯和连接,词汇资源,语法的范围和精确度),最大的障碍来自词汇资源不足,集中体现在某些不熟悉的话题上。在2011-2012年雅思口语考试考过的50个高频话题中,73%的受访者认为最难的5道题为“描绘你去过的一个博物馆”、“描绘一个艺术作品”、“描绘你国家的一条你认为好的法律”、“描绘你在特殊场合选择的一件服装或者珠宝”以及“描绘一个有历史意义的古建筑”。调查问卷显示,绝大多数的考生对这些话题语言积累很少,在中学和大学的英语教材里面从未接触过,所以在谈这些话题的时候,只能从外围谈及相关的信息,无法触及这些话题要求的本质核心内容。
  但是,根据Bachman提出的交际语言能力模型,交际语言能力的基本构成内容是知识结构和语言能力。但在口语输出的过程中,绝大部分考生已经具备了相关话题的知识,但是这些知识往往是用母语获得的,在口试的过程中,考生不得不在很短的时间内把这些知识转化成目的语的语言,这也正是大部分考生在口语输出过程中错误百出的症结所在。在Bachman的交际模型里,对于第二语言使用者来说,知识结构和语言能力不是同时存在的,这就要求第二语言使用者在学习语言的过程中对于已知的话题知识结构获得相当的目的语言输入,而大部分中国考生之所以觉得部分雅思话题尤其之难,这与语言学习的过程中大学英语教材上对这些内容涉及不足存在较大关联。
  二、国内通用大学英语听说教材在内容方面对学生表现造成的局限
  从目前国内高校通用的公共外语口语教学中使用最普遍的教材中,我们发现这些教材的不足之处与中国学生在雅思口语考试中表现出来的劣势存在高度的对应关系。
  首先,我们从题材的选择来看。以国内某权威出版社的《大学英语视听说教程》为例。该套教材共分为四册书,以主题单元为组织方法,涵盖了相当丰富的内容。在内容选择上,教材兼顾了语言,文化和信息之间的有机关系;在题材编排方面,注意了从与大学生活紧密相关的话题入手,循序渐进地过渡到了比较抽象的话题。但是它也存在若干值得改进之处。
  第一,本土化不足。该套教材每个单元有三篇较长的听力输入(listening-in),但几乎每篇都是围绕话题相关的西方文化向学生输入信息。以第一册第五单元 What’s your favorite food? 为例,三篇听力输入分别是谈论“快餐文化”“麦当劳”和“美国餐饮习惯”的。再如第二册第一单元Roll over, Beethoven! 三篇与音乐主题相关的听力文章分别是“Encore!”, “The Carpenters”和“Mozart”。这样的信息输入有助于学生了解西方文化,以语言为媒介拓展自己的文化知识。然而在跨文化交际中,本土化意识却被冲淡了。换句话说,目的语文化导入在该套教材中受到了充分的重视,但是文化交流是双向的,学生在口语交际中却无法把自己本土的文化用正确的外语表达出来,造成交际的失败。在近年的雅思考试试题中,不难看出一个明显的趋势就是话题本土化,比方说2012年的考题“描绘一个对你国家非常有意义的建筑物”和“描绘一个你感兴趣的传统事件”。教材中对本土化题材输入不足,直接造成了学生对这类的雅思口语考试题目束手无策。第二, 话题主要触及日常和休闲生活层面,重复较多。比方说“工作”这个话题就重复出现在第三册第四单元和第四册第四单元和第五单元中。而与此同时,国际通用的英语口语水平测试(如雅思和托福的口试)中常出现的更专业的话题如“历史”“艺术”“法律”等却为被涉及,更缺乏如“成功”“竞争”“团队合作能力”“计划”“决定”等等这些抽象类话题。   其次,从口语技能培养方面看,这类教材过分突出了日常交际口语,忽略了陈述,辩论等更高层次的口语能力培养。不可否认,交际能力的掌握是口语训练的目的。语言是交际的工具。而交际能力的核心是使学生能够运用所学语言在不同场合中对不同对象进行有效、得体的交际。Hymes 指出,语言教学的目的就是要发展交际能力,既包括语言能力,同时也包括语用能力。他还进一步阐明了交际能力的4 个特征:1.辨别、组织合乎语法的句子;2.在适当的环境中用适当的语言;3.能判断语言形式的可接受性;4.能知道语言形式出现的常用的习语,或是罕见的个人用语。从《新视野大学英语视听说教程》中所选取的口语技能培养重点上来看,我们不难发现教材对口语交际中社会文化因素,和社会语言能力培养的偏重。而却极其欠缺对学生语篇输出的能力和技巧的培养,如话题拓展和衔接机制的方法培养等。
  根据卡纳尔(Canale)和斯温(Swain)模式,交际能力包括四个方面:(1)语言能力,指正确理解和表达话语和句子意义所需的语音、词法、句法、词汇等语言知识系统;(2)社会语言能力,指语言使用的规则,即在人际交际中合适理解和使用话语的能力;(3)语篇能力,指在超句子水平面上理解和组织各种句子构成语篇的能力;(4)语言策略能力,指说话者在遇到交际困难时运用的一套系统的技巧(如转述,回避,身势语,借用等),用以补救交际中因缺乏应有的能力所导致的交际中断。后三种能力均与语言使用有关,可统称为语用能力(pragmatic competence)(Widdowson,1989)。国内目前通用的口语类培训教材中对卡纳尔(Canale)和斯温(Swain)模式中后两个方面能力的培养明显弱于前两方面。
  三、关于改革口语教学内容的几点感想
  针对学生在口语表达方面的问题以及当前大学英语口语教材中的局限性,如何通过大学英语口语教学,帮助学员提高语篇能力和语言策略能力,我们认为应该从如下几个方面对大学英语口语教学进行改革:
  首先,口语教材内容应该既国际化,又本土化。考试对教学的反拨作用是巨大的。作为促进教学改革的一种动力,它对课程,教学大纲,教学模式都会产生潜在的影响。而目前,国内缺乏一种通用的口语能力测试标准来影响教材和教学活动。我们认为,口语教材编撰者在选编教材题材和内容时,不妨以雅思托福等国际认可度较高的英语水平测试体系为指导,充分考虑到选材的国际化,同时加入相当比重的本土化内容,帮助学生完成跨文化双向交际。在能力标准上,也可以与国际标准接轨。事实上,目前有很多国外的语言能力测试都开始与
  欧洲语言共同参考框架并轨。
  其次,口语技能培养应该梯次化,标准化。当前国内通用的各套听说教材,如《新视野大学英语听说教程》、《新标准大学英语听说教程》、《全新版大学英语听说教程》等在设计理念,编排方式,作业和任务安排等方面各有千秋,但在口语交际技能的培养方面还缺乏一个被共同认可的比较有权威的参照标准。虽然《大学英语课程教学要求》中对大学阶段英语口语教学提出了一般要求,较高要求和更高要求。在我们看来,这些要求的要被具体落实下去还需细化,明确化,梯次化。使不同的口语能力对应各类高校的人才培养目标,适应不同层次学生以后在社会生活和职业发展中对外语口语能力的需要。
  另外,口语教学应该是渗透内容与语言融合的教学法 (Content And Language Integrated Learning)。20世纪80年代以前,语言教学和学科教学往往是被对立起来。语言教师的职责是教授语言相关的知识而非语言承载的知识。这种语言教育观念在知识经济化,和高度信息化的今天,已经逐渐不再能适应人才培养的需要。目前盛行的交际功能教学法在很大程度上以普通外语教学为主。即:教学内容以日常使用的语言为主,培养人们运用语言解决日常生活问题,完成日常交际目的的能力。这样的教学方法造成的结果就是大学英语与职业用途相关的英语(ESP)的分立。也造成了在大学英语的教学模式下,学生到口语高端发展阶段,无法自如谈论与自己专业相关的知识的窘境。
  但是,David Marsh 和 Anne Maljers提出的内容与语言融合的教学法(CLIL)就能成为解决这一问题的出路。这种教学法是通过运用目的语教学的内容,把语言系统与内容整合起来进行第二语言教学的方法。在这一模式下,学生的学习重点是通过第二语言获取信息并在此过程中发展语言技能,这意味着在教授二语或外语的情境范围内,可以将语言与专业课 (如数学、社会科学等)中的话题或任务融合起来学习。这种教学方法目前在欧盟国家中已经被广泛使用。
  高等教育国际化赋予了大学英语教学新的时代使命。培养具有国际视野、跨文化交流能力和国际竞争力的新型高素质人才,英语水平的提高发挥着举足轻重的作用。而要有效提高学生的英语应用能力,改变我国高校学生在雅思、托福等国际考试中口语成绩垫底的严峻形势,我们认为不妨从大学英语口语教学内容改革做起。从教学计划,教学大纲和教材三个方面落实改革具体措施,培养“具有国际视野”“通晓国际规则”“能够参与国际事务和国际竞争”的人才。
  [参考文献]
  [1]Bachman, Lyle. Fundamental considerations in language testing. [M]Oxford:Oxford University Press. 1990
  [2]***.《新视野大学英语视听说教程》.[M]北京:外语教育与研究出版社. 2006.
  [3]B.Stephen.Stryker and Betty Lon Leaver.Contenbased instruction in foreign language education: mode1 S and methods.[M] Washington.D.C:Georgetown University Press.1997.
  [4]Butt, D. G. 2005. Method and Imagination in Hallidays science of linguistics. In Continuing Discourse on Language: A Functional Perspective.[J] Volume 1. London: Equinox.
  [5]Canale,M.& Swain,M.1980.Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing.[J] Applied Linguistics,Vol.1,No.1.
  [6]马婷婷,《中国考试雅思口语考试低分的原因和对策》[J], 《考试周刊》 第26期,2011.

高考生英语口语考试

Topic1、Its nothing.

中文:小事情、不足挂齿。

Topic2、I owe you one.

中文:我欠你一个人情。

Topic3、Dont make any mistakes.

中文:别出差错。

Topic4、Im crazy bout English.

中文:我非常喜欢英语。

Topic5、Let me see.

中文:让我想一想。

Topic6、May I have your name, please? 中文:请问你叫什么名字?

Topic7、Its time for dinner.

中文:该吃晚饭了。

Topic8、Its better than nothing. 中文:总比没有好。

Topic9、Its a once in a lifetime chance. 中文:这是一生难得的机会。

Topic10、Its up to you.

中文:一切由你决定。

Topic11、I assure you.

中文:我向你保证。

Topic12、Maybe it will work.

中文:也许这个办法会有效。

Topic13、Im just having a look.

中文:我只是随便看看。

Topic14、Im on a diet.

中文:我正在节食。

Topic15、Enjoy your meal.

中文:请慢慢享用吧。

Topic16、Its awesome.

中文:棒极了!

Topic17、Maybe some other time.

中文:也许下一次吧。

Topic18、Are you used to the food here? 中文:你习惯吃这儿的饭菜吗?

Topic19、Easy come, easy go.

中文:来得容易,去得快。

Topic20、Dont mention it.

中文:不必客气。

Topic21、Be carefull.

中文:小心、注意。

Topic22、Dinner is on me.

中文:晚饭我请客。

Topic23、I really regret it.

中文:我真的非常后悔。

Topic24、Its essential.

中文:这是必要的。

Topic25、Keep the change.

中文:不用找了。

Topic26、Ill see what I can do.

中文:我看一看能怎么办。

Topic27、Hold your horses.

中文:耐心点儿。

Topic28、Absolutely impossible!

中文:绝对不可能的!

Topic29、Ill play it by ear.

中文:我将随兴而定。

Topic30、Probably.

中文:可能吧。

Topic31、Easier said than done.

中文:说明容易做时难。

Topic32、Is this seat taken?

中文:这位子有人坐吗?

Topic33、Ill give you a hand.

中文:我来帮助你。

Topic34、Cheer up!

中文:高兴起来!振作起来!

Topic35、Give my best to your family. 中文:代表向你们全家问好。

Topic36、Its a pain in the neck. 中文:这真是苦不堪言。

Topic37、Its nice meeting you.

中文:很高兴认识你。

Topic38、Can you give me a wake-up call? 中文:你能打电话叫醒我吗?

Topic39、Its hard to say.

中文:很难说。

Topic40、Are you married?

中文:你结婚了吗?

Topic41、Id like to make a reservation. 中文:我想订票。

Topic42、Its a small world.

中文:这世界真小。

Topic43、Please show me the menu. 中文:请把菜单给我。

Topic44、Pain past is pleasure.

中文:过去的痛苦即是快乐。

Topic45、Ive changed my mind.

中文:我已经改变主意。

Topic46、Thanks for the warning.

中文:谢谢你的提醒。

Topic47、How long did it last?

中文:持续了多久?

Topic48、Could you take a picture for me? 中文:你能帮我拍照吗?

Topic49、Its about time.

中文:时间差不多了、是时候了。

Topic50、Keep up the good work.

中文:再接再厉。

Topic51、Catch me later.

中文:过会儿再来找我。

Topic52、Can I help?

中文:要我帮忙吗?

Topic53、How often do you eat out? 中文:你隔多久在外面吃一次饭?

Topic54、Could I have the bill, please? 中文:请把账单给我好吗?

Topic55、I apologize.

中文:我很抱歉。

Topic56、Its a nice day today.

中文:今天天气很好。

Topic57、Ive got my hands full.

中文:我手头正忙。

Topic58、Ill check it.

中文:我去查一下。

Topic59、Id like a refund.

中文:我想要退款。

Topic60、I bet you can.

中文:我确信你能做到。

Topic61、That makes sense.

中文:那可以理解。

Topic62、Ill think it over.

中文:我仔细考虑一下。

Topic63、Its just what I had in mind. 中文:这正是这想要的。

Topic64、I thought so, too.

中文:我也这样以为。

Topic65、It doesnt make any difference. 中文:都一样。

驾驶员试题网 http://km3.jsyst.cn/ 科目三考试 Topic66、Time is money.

中文:时间就是金钱。

Topic67、You are just saying that. 中文:你只是说说而已。

Topic68、The sooner, the better.

中文:愈快愈好。

Topic69、Where is the rest room, please? 中文:请问洗手间在哪儿?

Topic70、This soup tastes great.

中文:这个汤非常美味。

Topic71、You need a vacation.

中文:你需要休假。

Topic72、You will be better off.

中文:你的状况会好起来的。

Topic73、Whats the deadline?

中文:截止到什么时候?

Topic74、Thats just what I was thinking. 中文:我也是这么想的。

Topic75、Whats the purpose of your visit? 中文:你来访的目的是什么?

Topic76、These things happen all the time. 中文:这是常有的事。

Topic77、What makes you say so?

中文:你怎么这么说呢?

Topic78、You said it.

中文:你算说对了。

Topic79、Thats ridiculous.

中文:那太荒唐了。

Topic80、Thats for sure.

中文:那是肯定的。

Topic81、Where were we ?

中文:我们说到哪儿了?

Topic82、The same to you.

中文:你也一样。

Topic83、Thats OK.

中文:可以。

Topic84、Whats your job?

中文:你做什么工作?

Topic85、You cant complain.

中文:你该知足了。

Topic86、Youve made a good choice. 中文:你的眼力不错。

Topic87、Youve dialed the wrong number. 中文:你拨错电话号码了。

Topic88、Youve got a point there. 中文:你说的有道理。

Topic89、There is nothing I can do. 中文:我无能为力。

Topic90、Whats going on?

中文:发生了什么事了?

Topic91、Who is in charge here?

中文:这里谁负责?

Topic92、There is a call for you. 中文:有你的电话。

Topic93、What is it like there?

中文:那儿怎么样?

Topic94、You are so considerate.

中文:你真有心。

Topic95、You are kidding.

中文:你开玩笑吧。

Topic96、You got a good deal.

中文:你买得真便宜。

Topic97、Where do you live?

中文:你住在哪儿?

Topic98、We have a lot in common. 中文:我们有很多相同之处。

Topic99、Thats more like it.

中文:那样才像话。

Topic100、Two heads are better than one. 中文:人多智广。

高考英语口语考试(老师用)

十大备考题目

1、Could you say something about yourself﹖这题主要是自我介绍(self-Introduction)的,主要问是哪里人啊、名字、年龄等等,注意回答内容的扩展性,但也不要说太多。

2、Can you say something about your family﹖这题是关于家庭情况的,一般会再问问家里有几个人啊,父母分别做什么工作,你家住在哪里等等。

3、Can you tell us something about your English study﹖关于英语学习情况也是常考的题目,这道题中一般包含学了多久英语了、喜欢英语吗,为什么喜欢、你觉得英语难不难等题。

4、Can you introduce your school﹖

5、If you fail in the college entrance examination,what are you going to do﹖What's your plan for next year﹖

6、Which university would you like to enter﹖Why﹖

7、May I know what's your hobby﹖这题是谈论关于兴趣爱好的,可能还会变形为“你业余时间干什么?”“你喜欢运动(阅读、听音乐等)吗?为什么?”

8、What time do you usually get up in the morning﹖

9、How do you go to school everyday﹖

10、What's your favorite food﹖Do you like Kentucky Fried Chicken﹖

9-10题都是谈论日常生活的,几点起床、怎么去上学的、喜欢吃什么,这类谈论日常生活的题目学生在家里练习时可以随意地多讲一些。

其他还有一些问题诸如“你的好朋友”“关于家乡的情况”“你觉得计算机有用吗”这类题目,也是时下比较热点的题目。

高考口试的心理应试技巧

要在口试中取得优异成绩,只具备英语知识是不够的,还需要一个健康的心态。考试应具备什么样的心态及应试技巧呢?

首先应认真对待口试,不受笔试影响。紧张的高考笔试结束后,口试已是最后一关了,一定要放松自己,已轻松的心情投入口试。虽然这样做不容易,但一定要努力做到。考生通常会有这样的情形:笔试结束后满脸颓丧,认为自己考砸了,于是没有心情参加考试;或是把笔试的阴影带入口试,影响口试的发挥.其实这完全没必要。考生明白,笔试已经结束,再想也没用,倒不如把精力放在口试上,争取把笔试的损失从口试中补回来;千万不能丧失信心,甚至放弃口试。其实对报考外语专业及外语相关专业的考生来说,口试成绩与笔试一样重要。因此,放弃口试就等于放弃外语专业的报考,没有口试成绩,这类院校是不会录取的。所以无论如何都要参加口试。况且,考生对自己的成绩的估计是不很准确的。因此, 无论口试考得如何,都应认真对待口试;即使确实考的不很理想,也应努力摆脱笔试的影响,下决心在口试中得到补偿。

其次在口试中考生最容易产生紧张情绪,要克服这一心理,有以下两种途径:

第一,考生可以通过自身的心理调节消除紧张情绪。考生应当这样想:进入考场前有10分钟的准备时间,考生对考题并不是一无所知,只要考生静下心来,认真准备,就一定能把问题准备好。再说如果听不懂还可以请老师重复。如果太紧张,不但不能集中精力准备,而且还会影响临场发挥,本来能听懂的内容到时候也糊涂了,只是口试没有反映出自己的真正水平。另外,还有一点考生应注意,在哦在你面前的是最了解你的心理的老师,老师们有很多教学和考试经验,都能理解考生的心情,对都能会替你着想,帮你放松,因此考生就没有紧张的必要了。

第二,要想能够克服紧张心理,必须早些做好准备,充分的准备是克服紧张的法宝。在平时的学习中,考生就应该坚持早读,每天半小时左右。读书应注意语音语调,要念准每一个单词,并能根据音标读出生词,因为,可口试的短文中要求考生朗读的短文中可能会出现没有见过的单词,短文后会有音标注释,考生应认准音标,发出正确的读音。还有,在朗读中不能只图快,否则会给人囫囵吞枣的感觉。此外,还要对口头作文的积累。根据以往经验,小作文的题目不外乎以下范围:校园生活,学习,业余爱好,旅游,假期活动,对社会问题的认识等等。考生在复习时,应注意课本与上面题目有关的课文,并能熟悉句型,最好把它们背下来,以便在口试中得心应手。具体临场发挥时,考生应学会随机应变,尽量学会选择自己准备好的话题,就可以用在不同的口头作文中:你想喜欢读书,这是你的“学习方法”,也是你的“业余爱好”,还可以是你的“假期计划”... ...总之,多准备一些素材,口试中碰到的都是些熟悉的话题,自然就不会紧张了。

无法预测主考老师要问什么样的问题,但是还是有规律可循的。主考老师为了确认考生的姓名和考号,一般会让考生做一个简短的自我介绍(self-introduction),其中包括姓名、毕业学校、业余爱好、特长等内容,所以,考生提前准备一个自我介绍是非常必要的。还有,提前准备一些关于你的家庭、家乡、校园生活、学习、业余爱好、旅游、假期活动、对社会问题的认识等等的资料, 例如,家***几口人,父母的职业等等。

"五个W"是最常用的方法, 即 Who-人物?When-时间?Where-地点?What-事件?How-解决方案。因为时间有限,所以,遵循这"五个W"原则,可以在最短的时间内理解文章的大意,抓住短文的中心思想。第二,正确应对即兴陈述。首先要条理清晰,注意在陈述时,要使用下面一些词,如firstly? secondly? thirdly? etc.或者是on one hand? on the other hand? 或者是,in the first place? in the second place? etc. 其次,要避免频繁使用同一个词或词组。考生在考试的时候,一定不要频繁使用同样的词组,要不断变换表达方式,例如,I am eighteen or I am eighteen years old or I am an eighteen-year-old boy/girl. 又如,I do not like playing basketball or I dislike playing basketball.再次,要控制语速。适当的语速,不仅可以给老师留下好的印象,而且还可以为自己争取更多思考的时间。最后,避免使用长句或复杂的句子。例如:My father is an engineer who works at a computer company. 这一句,可以说成,My father is an engineer.He works at a computer company.

要尽量为自己争取更多思考的时间。如果有个问题实在答不上来时,千万不要保持沉默,而是要不停地说,可以说些如"Well"? "Okay"? "How to say"? "Let me think."? "As far as I remember/know"之类的句子,给考官一个有应变能力的印象,当然这种情况不宜出现过多。另外,当听不明白老师的问题时,切忌不懂装懂,答非所问。 这时。要用英语请老师重复时可说:"Sorry I cannot catch you?may I beg your pardon?" 或"I beg your pardon?"或"Would you please to repeat?"或"would you please to say it again?"当遇到不会读的单词的时,考生不要盲目乱读,可以用英语直接向老师询问:"Sorry? I don't know how to pronounce this word? would you like to tell me how to read this word?" or "Can you tell me how to pronounce this word."否则,考生会因为单词发音错误,而被扣分。

要注意使用眼睛和手势的使用。在老师提问的时候, 考生要注视着对方,用眼睛与老师交流(eye contact),表示你在认真听老师的提问。在回答问题时,考生在用英语说的同时借助手势表达出你想表达的思想。 还要用眼睛不时地注视每一位主考老师。不要低头,或斜视它方。

2015年高考口试试题

1.Do you like your monitor? Why? Why not?

2.Is your English teacher strict with you in your studies? How?

3.How are you getting along with your classmates?

1.What kind of music do you like best?

2.What do you think of your English teacher?

3.Who is your best friend? Say something about himher.

1.Do you often use dictionaries when you learn English?

2.what date is your birthday?

3.How do you like your mother?

1.Do you often play football/table tennis/volleyball/ Why? Why not?

2.Which do you like better,watching TV or seeing movies?

3.Please say something about your family.

1.Do you enjoy music? Why? Why not?

2.Whats your favourite subject?

3.What do you often do on Sundays?

1.Do you buy any presents for your parents on their birthdays?

2.What sport do you like best?

3.What are you going to do during summer holidays?

1. Do you often listen to English programs? Why? Why not?

2.What do you do in your spare time?

3.Do you like your school? Why? Why not?

1.Do you often watch TV? Why? Why not?

2.What are you going to be in the future?

3.Who is your favourite teacher? Please say something about him/her.

1.How do you usually spend your weekends?

2.Do you have any penfriends? Please say something about him/her?

3.What do you usually do in your spare time?

1.Do you like sports? Why? Why not?

2.What did you do after the collage entrance examinations?

3.Please say something about one of your good friends.

1.Do you think collecting stamps interesting? Why? Why not?

2.What subjects did you study?

3.What do you do to improve your English?

1.Whats your favourite food?

2.How long did you spend on your homework every day?

3.Could you please say something about your school?

1.Is it important to learn English? Why? Why not?

2.How many classed did you have in Senior Three every day?

3.What do you do to keep fit?

1.Do you like English? Why? Why not?

2.How are you getting along with your school life?

3.Who is your favourite teacher? Please say something about him/her.

1.What subject do you like best? Why?

2.How often do you watch TV?

3.Whats your interest? Please say something about it?

1.Do you take any exercise every day?

2.Which season do you like best? Why? Why not?

3.How do you spend your summer holidays?

1.Do you often speak English with your English teachers?

2.What program do you like best on CCTV?

3.Please tell us something about your hometown.

topics:

1.The opening policy of the western area

2.My hobbies

3.The procedure of writing a letter

4.Why do you learn English?

5.What do you think of the Chinese football?

6.internet

7.birth control policy

8.sum-up the students life

9.trip

10.amateur activities

11.How to learn English well?

12.the rapid development of fast foods

13.the importance of telephone

14.a good student

15.How to spend your spare or class time(go on line/internet)

浅析高考之英语口语考试

  [摘 要] 随着全球经济的发展,英语口语已经越来越受到大家的重视,英语口语教学和口语考试也成为教育工作者必须认真思考的问题。

  [关键词] 高考;英语口语考试;教学
  [中图分类号] G424.79 [文献标识码] A [文章编号] 1008-004X(2012)08-056-02
  当前,一个高中毕业生无法用简单的英语日常交际用语与老师进行交流的现象普遍存在。这不得不让我们正视英语口语教学存在的问题,也不得不让教育工作者认真反思我们的英语口语教学。下面,结合英语口语考试,谈一谈英语口语学习。
  一、什么是英语口语考试
  1.英语口语考试等级。湖北省英语口语等级考试(全称Spoken English Testing System,简称SETS,音译“赛思”)是经湖北省教育厅批准,由湖北省教育考试院主办的面向全体公民的英语口语水平考试。
  英语口语考试共分为六个级别,面向全社会开考,采取自愿报名的方式进行。其中,第三级为高考英语专业考生应考级别。所谓三级英语口语考试就是要求能掌握2400个左右的词汇,能在一般性交谈中比较清楚地发表意见,表明态度,作出判断等;能使用常见的会话技巧;能就一般话题作约2分钟的连续表达,它与高考报名同步(部分学校和专业报名中的一个选项)。
  2.英语口语考试模式。三级英语口语考试目前有两种模式,即“人人对话”模式和“人机对话”模式。“人人对话”就是考官与考生直接对话,由考官根据考生答题情况直接给考生评出得分的考试模式。“人机对话”就是由考生直接与计算机对话,然后阅卷教师统一评分的考试模式。试题主要由“内容分”和“语言分”两部分组成。
  二、英语口语考试的重要意义
  1.有利于促进学生学习英语。通过口语考试可以对学生的英语学习状况作出价值判断,了解学生英语知识、技能和能力已达到的水平和存在的问题,并据此确定具体的教学措施,以利于设计合适的教学方案。口语考试的目的主要在于引导学生积极开口,提高学生的口语表达能力,发挥考试对学生学习行为的导向作用。口语考试还有助于提高学生综合运用语言的能力,进而提升学生通过听读来吸取信息,通过交流来传递信息,并靠听说来加速阅读,推动书面表达和交流信息等语言技能。
  2.有利于指导教师教学。促使教师注重语言运用和交际能力的培养,改革“满堂灌”、“注入式”的传统教学模式,促进教学手段多样化,有利于突现和营造良好的学习英语语言情境和课堂气氛,注重学生的情感、兴趣、成就感和自信心,强化学生的体验和实践,培养学生的语言交际能力。
  3.升学必备。根据高校在鄂招生需要,部分高校、专业招生明确要求需要口语成绩,还有更多学校、专业要求有口语成绩作为参考。这里以2010年高考录取为例,详见表1:
  三、提高英语口语考试成绩之我见
  1.明确目标。学英语不要模糊了方向,混淆了其内涵,不是为了拿高分,也不是为了考大学,而是为了掌握一门“技术”,掌握一个工具,有了这样的学习目标,学起来才更轻松,更容易,更有激情。
  2.重视环境。创设良好的语言环境,培养学生的英语语感是很重要的,在英语学习过程中力求合理利用和积极开发有效资源,给学生提供贴近实际,贴近生活,贴近时代的内容健康和丰富的教学内容;要积极利用广播、电视、书报杂志,尤其是网络信息等提升英语技能,拓展学习和运用英语的渠道;积极鼓励和支持学生主动参与这些资源的开发和利用。让学生最大限度地使用英语,培养英语语感及使用英语的习惯,增强学生学习英语口语的信心,变被动为主动,参与到交际口语活动中来。
  3.敢于开口,养成习惯。运用多种方式鼓励学生开口说英语,学生实际运用英语的能力是学习英语的出发点和归宿。英语的能力只有通过说的实践才能培养起来。所以教师应该培养和激发学生学习英语的积极性和自信心,多给学生提供开口说英语的机会。比如:课堂提问可不断变换方式,除了“老师问,学生答”之外,还可采取“学生问,学生答”,“学生问,教师答”或“讨论式问答”等形式实施课堂口语活动。多开展小组活动,设置热点话题,通过邀请、电话、购物、节目、旅游、上网等,加强小组讨论合作学习,激励学生主动开口说英语。
  4.参加考试的技巧。英语口语考试技巧很多,这里特别强调一点,考试中,考生应将麦克风调节到嘴的水平线略下方,离嘴唇2CM(即两指头宽)处。若小于1CM容易将呼吸声录入,大于5CM会影响录音效果。还有考试录音过程中,手不要触摸麦克风,以免造成杂音,影响录音效果等,这些都是影响考试成绩的因素。
  随着对外经济文化交流的不断发展,口头交际能力会愈来愈受到重视,有效地提高学生英语口语水平已势在必行。从语言的发展、学习语言的自然规律和语言交际所采取的形式来看,英语口语考试也是必不可少的一门课程。我们必须重视英语口语这门课程,上好英语口语这门课。
  [参考文献]
  [1]廖平胜,等.考试学[M].武汉:华中师范大学出版社,1988.
  [2]刘海峰.高考改革中的全局观[J].高等教育研究,2002,(2).
  [3]康乃美,蔡炽昌.中外考试制度比较研究[M].武汉:华中师范大学出版社,2002.
  [责任编辑:李 敏]
  Analysis of Oral Test in Gaokao
  TONG Jin-wu, LI Zi-hua
  (Danjiangkou Education Examinations Center, Danjiangkou, Hubei 442700, China)
  Abstract: With the development of the global economy, English has attracted more and more peoples attention; therefore, English teaching and the oral exam have become the issues need to be considered seriously by the educators.
  Key words: Gaokao; oral exam; teaching

高考英语口语考试必背

高考英语口语考试必背

1. I quit! 我不干了!. 2. Let go! 放手! 3. I’m easy. 随便!

4. Allow me. 让我来。 5. My treat. 我请客。 6. Bless you! 祝福你!

7. Forget it! 休想! (算了!) 8. I decline! 我拒绝! 9. I promise. 我保证。

10. Take care! 保重! 11. They hurt. (伤口)疼。 12. Bottoms up! 干杯(见底)!

13.I doubt it 我怀疑。 14. Im single. 我是单身贵族。 15. Keep it up! 坚持下去!

16. Thats all! 就这样! 17. Time is up.时间快到了。 18. Whats new? 有什么新鲜事吗?

19. Count me on 算上我。 20. Im his fan。 我是他的影迷。21. Is it yours? 这是你的吗?

22. Thats neat. 这很好。 23. Are you sure? 你肯定吗? 24. Do l have to 非做不可吗?

25. He is my age.他和我同岁26. Here you are. 给你。 27. Any thing else? 还要别的吗?

28. Do me a favor? 帮个忙,好吗? 29. Keep in Touch.保持联络。 30. Whos calling? 是哪一位?

31. You set me up! 你出卖我! 32. Hows it going? 怎么样? 33. I have no idea. 我没有头绪。

34. I just made it! 我做到了! 35. Ill see to it 我会留意的。 36. Im in a hurry! 我在赶时间!

37. Its her field. 这是她的本行38. Its up to you.由你决定。 39. Just wonderful! 简直太棒了!

40. You owe me one.你欠我一个人情41. Any day will do. 哪一天都行

42. Are you kidding? 你在开玩笑吧! 43. I cant help it. 我情不自禁

44.I dont mean it. 我不是故意的。45. not a chance 没有丝毫机会

46. Come off it. 别装蒜/胡说 47. Not really. 48. It’s a deal. 成交。

49. It takes all sorts 世上的人形形色色,无奇不有50. Better play it safe 慎重;别冒险

51. I beg to differ 我不同意,恕我直言。 52. Just my luck真倒霉

53. You bet!你说的没错/当然。 54. There you go!就这样了!55. Here you go!干得好!

56. Many happy returns of the day!祝你长寿,祝你生日快乐。57. As predicted. 正如所料

58. Can’t complain虽然还有一些小问题,但情况还可以。59. Let’ go Dutch各付各的钱

60. I can manage it myself.我自己能行。...61.That’s fine with me我无所谓/我没问题。

62. You can say that again. 你说的太对了 63. As it comes, please! 随便,谢谢!

64. How would you like your tea? 你的茶要怎么沏? (言外之意就是问你要加糖或加奶吗?)

65. Don’t be a wet blanket. 不要做一个扫兴的人

66. Well done! /Good job! Quite perfect! 干得不错!67. Youve got a good point 你说的很有道理

68. Shall I take your order? 请点菜/Are you being severed? 点过菜了吗?

70. Dinner is severed! 晚餐已准备好! 71. At your service 听您的吩咐;随时提供方便

72. Dinner is severed! 73. Do you really mean it?“此话当真?

74. mean it我是认真的 75. It’s nothing at all/Think nothing of it. 回答感谢时用。

76. So long/see you. 再见。

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